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5 Common Mistakes Beginner Hikers Make

Gabriel Patterson, Toronto Fitness Trainer and Experienced Outdoorsman, Discusses
Five Common Mistakes Beginner Hikers Make and Shares Tips for Success

Hiking is a great pastime that can be taken up at any age. Though hiking seems like a simple recreational activity, beginner hikers must be adequately prepared to stay safe and get the most enjoyment. Here, Gabriel Patterson, Toronto fitness trainer and nutrition expert, details common mistakes made by beginner hikers and how to avoid them.

1. Not Drinking Enough Water

Beginner hikers often fail to drink enough water. As a general rule, it's recommended to bring 1 liter of water for every 2 hours of hiking. The goal should be to drink 6 to 12 ounces of water every 15 minutes. You can follow signs of thirst as an indicator of when to drink or use a timer or app to remind you. Be aware that individual water needs vary and can depend on body weight, weather conditions, and trail difficulty. If it's hot or you're at increased elevation, plan on drinking more water.

Water is heavy--over 2 pounds per liter--so what's the best way to carry enough? A CamelBak-type bladder holds 2 to 4 liters and has a convenient drinking tube that encourages the hiker to drink often.

Alternatively, Nalgene bottles can be packed on the side of most backpacks in easily accessible bottle holders. For longer hikes, you can also carry a water filter or drops to refill your water container from a fresh water source safely. Be sure to follow the instructions and research potential water sources ahead of time.

Get prepared for your hike by drinking 18 to 24 ounces of water an hour before you hit the trail. Know signs of dehydration (and overhydration) so you can stay safe, keep your energy levels up, and enjoy your hike.

2. Going Too Difficult or Long Too Soon

It may be tempting to jump right in and pick the most scenic trail. Instead, look at the guides and pick a path for beginners. Pick a distance that's shorter than what you could usually walk comfortably and then work up slowly from there. You know your fitness level best, so be honest with yourself when choosing a trail. In particular, be mindful of hills and climbs in elevation, which can be quite draining, and plan accordingly.

If you go too hard too soon, you won't enjoy yourself as much, or worse, you could risk getting injured. There will be plenty of days ahead to take on more challenging trails and distances after you've got more experience and stamina.

3. Not Dressing Appropriately

While beginner hiking generally doesn't require much special equipment, please don't be caught on the trail in jeans and a cotton t-shirt, which will chafe and trap moisture. Wear thin layers of moisture-wicking clothes meant for exercise. Dressing in compact layers will help you avoid being under or overdressed because you can shed or add layers as needed. Pack an extra layer of insulation in case the temperatures should drop or you get delayed past nightfall.

The feet are arguably the most essential consideration for beginner hikers. Ditch your everyday cotton socks and invest in some high-quality hiking socks. Some lightweight trail runners or sneakers can work on a beginner hiking trail without many obstacles. Otherwise, it can be useful to invest in a well-fitting pair of hiking boots. Whatever you do, never hit the trail with a pair of new shoes. Make sure any shoes are well broken in by wearing them at home, out shopping, or on walks around the neighborhood.

Don't forget to pack a rain jacket in case of an unexpected shower and consider sun protection, including a hat or bandana and sunglasses.

4. Forgetting to Plan for Emergencies

Even if you plan ahead, there is always a chance that something may not go as planned, even on day trips. Packing emergency supplies should be on any beginner hiker's checklist. Well-prepared hikers will have the following in their pack:
  • First aid kit
  • Headlamp
  • Trail map, compass, and GPS device
  • Knife
  • Gear repair kit
  • Firestarter
  • Emergency shelter
  • Sunscreen and insect repellent
Always bring a little more water and food than you expect you'll need in case you get delayed or stranded. Dense "superfoods" such as trail bars found at outdoor stores are great to have on hand should you need extra calories.

Be sure to tell someone not in your hiking group about your hiking plans, including your route, when you're leaving, and when you plan to return. You can also leave a note in your car with this information; be sure the details aren't in full view of potential burglars. Consider bringing an emergency locator beacon as you may not get cell service the entire length of your route.

5. Going Hiking Alone

The best way to gain more experience hiking is to join some more experienced hikers. Buddying up or joining a group can not only be more enjoyable, but it is also much safer. If anything happens, there will be others there to assist you or go for help. If you don't have any friends who hike, outdoor enthusiast Gabriel Patterson recommends checking online for a hiking group near you.

Enjoy Your Hike

Hiking can be an incredibly rewarding and enjoyable outdoor activity. Beginner hikers should not be intimidated by this list but instead feel more secure in being knowledgeable and prepared for their hikes. As you gain more experience, getting prepared will become like second nature.

Shorter Bows Vs Longer Bows

Q

Two Very Similar Questions

"I have a question. I'm 19 and started off when I was 2 years old shooting traditional. As I got older I started shooting compound. I have a bear kodiak super magnum and I am really wanting to be able to harvest my first deer with traditional equipment this year but my shooting is all over the place. Earlier I went in the garage and got out a bear grizzly the my dad doesn't use anymore. Now the grizzly is significantly longer than the kodiak magnum. I started shooting it and was shooting way better than with the magnum. Could the size difference of the bow be the reason I was shooting worse/better?

Dylan G."


"[A] question that I have is in regards to the length of bows in general. What would be the biggest difference I would feel if I used a 62" bow compared to the 66" bow that we have been using. Would it still work well with the 28" draw length or would I just be overdrawing the bow all the time?

Thanks again for all of your help,

Eric K."


A

The short answer:

Longer bows are more forgiving. You can make a mistake and often still hit the target.
Shorter bows are unforgiving. You make a mistake and miss completely.

The long answer... it is complicated. It comes down to the physics and the design of the bow, the canting of the bow, the angle of the bowstring to tip of the bow, lateral physics, whether the bow is more bottom heavy and other factors. But yes, generally speaking, longer bows are usually more forgiving than shorter bows.

This is also true of compound bows too, which are measured from axle to axle.

Axle-to-Axle, or more commonly called by the acronym ATA, is the distance measured between each axle of a compound bow. Each cam operates on an axle and taking the length between those two axles is going to be your ATA measurement. There are compound bows with a long ATA, short ATA and some with a middle of the road ATA.

The longer ATA compound bows are always more forgiving of mistakes. However many hunters favour shorter ATA compound bows because they want a bow that weighs less, allows them to maneuver easier around branches when shooting from a tree stand, etc.

With competitive compound shooters however they don't need to worry about weight and maneuvrability. They just want as much accuracy as they can get. Thus competitive compounds are often quite long from axle to axle.


The same goes with Olympic recurve archers.

When it comes to Olympic recurves they are usually 66, 68 or 70 inches long. The extra bit of length gives the bow a bit more accuracy and Olympic archers want all the accuracy they can get. Thus it would be rare to see an Olympic recurve which is 64 inches or less. Most manufacturers that make such bows don't even make limbs and riser combos that go that short.


WHAT MAKES A GREAT ARCHER?

Now you may have also heard previously that when it comes to feats of accuracy and skill the three best archers of the last century all shot longbows: Awa Kenzo, Howard Hill, Byron Ferguson - sometimes listed in that order.

And that is true. They all shot longbows.

Awa Kenzo shot a Japanese yumi longbow. Yumi longbows are typically 7 to 9 feet long.

Howard Hill shot a traditional English longbow which had a modified handle he designed himself.

Byron Ferguson is still alive and shoots a "radical reflex-deflex longbow". Rather a complicated longbow design, but there it is.

So why did they shoot a longer bow even though these archers were already great at what they do?

Because even great archers still make mistakes. And when you know mistakes still happen you want to get the extra consistency that a longer bow affords you.

So what made these three longbow men so great?

Well, Awa Kenzo was known for his trick shooting. He could shoot a bullseye in the dark and then repeat the shot with such accuracy that he Robin Hooded the first arrow.

Howard Hill was renown for his hunting skills. One of my favourite stories about him is shooting an eagle at 150 yards, roughly twice the distance that Olympic archers shoot at (70 meters).

And Byron Ferguson does a combination of both trick shooting and long distance shooting. He can shoot a tiny moving target, like an aspirin in the air at 30 feet.

So then you might wonder, wait, so if Olympic recurves are so great, why aren't there any really famous Olympic archers?

Because they come and go. The average length of a competitive archer's career is less than 10 years. Even the most successful Olympic archers only ever compete in 1 or 2 Olympic Games and spend most of their time competing in local competitions, and there is very little money in it.

Plus the Koreans keep winning 75% of all the big competitions.

This comes down to money. In Korea Olympic archers often get big sponsors like Hyundai and Samsung supporting their careers. There is far more money in the sport in South Korea.

In contrast guess how much a Canadian Olympic archer earns in a year from sponsors?

Usually zero.

So eventually as Olympic archers get older they need to stop competing in order to pay for bills. They get married, have a few kids, the usual deal.

Even great archers like Awa Kenzo, Howard Hill, and Byron Ferguson had/have their sources of income. Awa Kenzo taught archery and martial arts, opening his own dojo. Howard Hill was in a lot of films between the 1930s and 1960s, promoting archery via film. Byron Ferguson writes books about archery.

So what made them great wasn't just their skill, but also their ability to keep doing archery because they made it part of their livelihood. Teaching, promoting, writing.

Olympic archers after they retire from competitions rarely go into archery as a business. A tiny few will end up coaching, while most of them will get an university degree or a college diploma and pursue a different passion.

Can you name an Olympic archer who was active during the 1980s or 1990s who is still famous, still competing and shooting amazingly today?

Nope. Neither can I.

Below is two photos of three Olympic archers shooting inside the Eaton's Centre while it was being built in May 1976. The photographs were taken by reporter/photographer Tibor Kelly. The archers in the photo are Wayne Pullen, Ron Lippert and Sheila Brown.


I had never heard of any of those three archers until a few months ago. And oddly enough, despite all their medals and accolades, these photographs might be the most historically important thing they ever did as archers. No doubt they contributed personally to the sport, encouraging others, teaching a bit, being supportive. Tiny ripples of influence in the river of history.

The three of them collectively probably had boxes of medals and trophies. So many they didn't know what to do with. But once an archer's competitive archery career is over, then what?
 
Some might shoot recreationally.
 
A rare few might get into bowhunting.
 
A tiny few might get into coaching, if they have the necessary skills to teach it properly.
 
Extremely few will write a How To Book, as that implies they first got into coaching and also had the necessary skills required to write a book about it.

So what makes a great archer?

In my opinion it is more than merely competing for 10 years (or less) of your life. Great archers shoot for decades and they leave a lasting contribution to the sport.

Awa Kenzo didn't just found an archery school. He founded a whole branch of Japanese archery, breaking from the ritualized kyudo to focus more on zen and Buddhist principles, a branch of Japanese archery that is still practiced today as his disciples passed on his teachings.

Howard Hill performed some amazing feats of archery. But in North America he also caused an archery fad that lasted from the late 1930s to early 1970s. An archery fad that lasted decades and effected the sport on the global level. (In contrast The Hunger Games fad only lasted a few years.) If it wasn't for Howard Hill there wouldn't even by "Olympic archery". They brought the sport back to the Olympics in 1972 after a 52 year hiatus.

And Byron Ferguson continues to teach, write and amaze. His contributions to the sport are not yet tallied.

For example lets talk about E. T. Seton.

E. T. Seton was an author of children's books. Yes, he did archery, but he wasn't particularly great at it. But he did manage to leave a lasting impression on Toronto's Archery community by donating in his will the land that became E. T. Seton Park and now contains the Toronto Archery Range.

Thus his biggest contribution to archery was land. A place for archers to practice.

Was E. T. Seton a great archer? Probably not. But we could say that he was a good person and a good archer. Certainly a generous archer.

Prebook Weekend Archery Lessons for 2020 and Get 10% Off

Hello Would-Be Archers (and Returning Archery Students)!

Are you looking to prebook weekend archery lessons for 2020 ?

Well, good news. Book now and you can get 10% off the weekend rate for archery lessons*.

* Notes
  • Offer only applies to weekend archery rates.
  • Offer applies regardless of whether a person is signing up for 1 lesson or 10.
  • Offer can also be used to purchase archery lessons as a gift for a friend or family member. Ask about my Archery Gift Vouchers.
  • Offer is good until December 31st 2019. After which normal rates apply.
  • Offer does not stack or combine with other discount offers for Seniors or Canadian Military Veterans.
  • Offer only applies to archery lessons beginning in 2020, from January to December 2020.

So for example if you signed up for 10 weekend lessons (normally $780) the price would be $702 instead.

50 lb Horsebow balanced on three arrows. Just waiting to be shot.

Pin Float Vs Reticular Drift

Q

Hey Charles!

I was speaking to a fellow compound shooter and I mentioned how hard it is to aim sometimes when the sight pin keeps moving around. He referred to this as "Pin Float".

Is Pin Float different from Reticular Drift or are they basically the same thing?

Regards,
Jeffrey H.

A

Hey Jeffrey!

Basically the same thing.

Reticular Drift is a term largely used by military snipers to describe when they are aiming through a scope and the crosshairs keep moving about while they are trying to perfect their aim.

In archery we also use the term Reticular Drift, but when we do we are talking about aiming off the arrowhead and likewise attempted to perfect our aim while the arrowhead is moving about.

Pin Float is a bit more specific to compound shooting, as compound sights usually have 3 or more pins to choose from (with the pins usually set by the archer to 20 yards, 30 yards, 40 yards, etc). When shooting at 20 yards they would use the 20 yard pin. While aiming if the pin is moving around, making it difficult to aim, it is called Pin Float.


So how does an archer prevent Reticular Drift or Pin Float?

The short answer, you don't. It never truly goes away.

Reticular Drift is caused by the archer being in motion. The archer is breathing. Their muscles are contracting in order to maintain their draw length. The more the archer is moving the worse the Reticular Drift will be. eg. If the archer is shaking in some manner the Reticular Drift will be really bad.

However there are ways to minimize its effects.

One, use proper archery form. This will reduce shaking.

Two, learn how to breathe into the belly (as opposed to the chest) so that the shoulders are not moving up and down when you breathe.

Three, build stronger back and shoulder muscles so that they are more relaxed when put under pressure.






SOMEWHAT OFF TOPIC

In video games archers are often depicted as being super steady with the bow and there is no Reticular Drift at all.

However there is one video game I do want to applaud, because the realism in the archery depicted in the game is amazing. "Kingdom Come Deliverance" has the most realistic archery I have ever seen in a video game.

The hero (Henry) starts off in the game being horrible at archery. When Henry is first shooting he is horrible at it and the Reticular Drift is so bad it is very difficult to aim. However as the player gets better at aiming their Archery skill goes up ranks from 0 to 20, and their Strength ability and other scores likewise goes up. The Strength ability/etc is necessary in order to be able to use more powerful bows in the game properly.

Now I have heard people complaining about the game and whining about the archery system being so difficult... but frankly these people have been coddled by games like Skyrim where the character automatically is perfectly steady with their aim. They don't get that archery is supposed to be difficult. But, once the player has gotten Henry's Archery skill up and his Strength score likewise up, Archery is arguably the best combat skill in the game because it allows the player to kill enemies from distances (often while staying hidden), whereas the other combat skills require getting within melee range - in which case the swordplay system is likewise hard at the beginning to simulate Henry sucking at it.

Does the Reticular Drift in the game make it harder? Yes, at the beginning. And it never truly goes away either, it just decreases significantly as Henry gets stronger and better at archery. But that is the whole point. The game is based on reality as much as possible. Even the castles/locations are real places in Bohemia where tourists can visit. So for example the archery range in the image below next to the castle walls? You can visit the location and go there. There is no archery range there (at least not any more), but you can visit the castle.

Disclaimer - Nobody paid me to write this. I am just a fan of the game. I prefer realism in my books and my games.


Backyard Archery Legality Issues

Frequently Asked Questions

#1. Where can I do archery?

#2. Is it safe and legal to do it in my backyard or similar locations?

#3. Is there a designated place to do archery in my city?

#4. Where else can someone go to do archery?

#5. Is it possible to get permission to shoot inside certain buildings?


Answers


 #1. The short answer: Anywhere that is safe and legal to do so.

The long answer is more complicated as it varies on your location and local laws.

In Toronto it is illegal to do archery in a public park, unless you have a permit or if it is a designated area that is purposely for archery. This is governed by Toronto Bylaw 608-4.

608-4. Firearms and offensive weapons.
  • A. While in a park, no person shall be in possession of or use a firearm, air gun, cross bow, bow and arrow, axe, paint guns or offensive weapon of any kind unless authorized by permit.
  • B. Despite Subsection A, bows and arrows may be used in designated areas in accordance with posted conditions.

So with respect to public parks a person can do archery if they either (A) get a permit or (B) only do archery in the designated locations (eg. The Toronto Archery Range located at E. T. Seton Park).

Now we should also note it is also possible to do archery on private property. Such locations are typically private archery ranges located at universities, indoor archery ranges, archery tag locations, etc.


#2. Yes and No. It depends.

Depending on the city you live in it is usually legal to do archery in your backyard, garage, basement, or other indoor facilities. What really matters here is two factors:

  1. Whether your city has banned any kind of outdoor shooting, release or throwing of items considered to be weapons. Some cities have outright banned the "release" or firing of such weapons. eg. Toronto has banned it in public parks, but there is no general ban.
  2. Whether you have taken steps to ensure the safety of your neighbours, passersby, etc. If the archer is recklessly shooting in a place with no safety precautions, then that is illegal regardless because it is Reckless Endangerment with a Firearm.

Imagine for example if someone was doing archery in their front yard and people walking by on the sidewalk are in danger of being injured (and possibly killed). Well then that constitutes Reckless Endangerment with a Firearm, which carries a penalty of a $4,000 fine and possible prison time.

So the backyard, garage, basement, etc is definitely safer, but in the case of a backyard the archer should also be taking steps to ensure that it is even more safe. eg. High fences would be ideal, shooting on a downward angle at a target placed on the ground, and exercising clear safety rules.

The safest alternative obviously is to only be shooting indoors in a garage, basement or similar location. eg. I know of several people who have convinced their employers to let them shoot in their warehouse during their lunch break, using stacks of old cardboard boxes in the warehouse as targets - cardboard doomed to recycled anyway.

That doesn't mean however that it isn't possible or legal to shoot in a backyard however. The person doing so simply needs to take various safety measures so that if they are ever asked by police about their backyard archery practice that they can prove that they are doing it in a safe manner that is not endangering anyone.

So for example a neighbour could phone the police and complain, and when police investigate and interview you then you would be able to show that you are using high fences, arrow netting, shooting on a downward angle towards a target on the ground and similar precautions. The police would then determine that there is no point in arresting you as you've proven that you've taken the necessary safety precautions and that you are not shooting recklessly over any fences and into the properties of your neighbours.

#3. In Toronto, Yes.

In Toronto we are fortunate to have the Toronto Archery Range, a free public archery range that is open 24/7 all year long. It is, to my knowledge, the only free public archery range in North America. (Burnaby has a similar public archery range, but it isn't free to use.)

You can learn more about the Toronto Archery Range by visiting:
http://www.archerytoronto.ca/Toronto-Archery-Range.html

Are there any other "designated areas" in Toronto where you can do archery outdoors? No, but there are a few indoor archery ranges that are privately run by universities and archery tag locations.

Very few cities have their own outdoor archery range. eg. Montreal has one, which I believe is privately owned. (If you know whether this is true or false please correct me in the comments.)

If you know of other cities or towns that have their own public archery range please post it in the comments.

#4. Outside the city limits.

If you leave the city limits of Toronto there are a variety of places where a person can do archery. Private archery ranges are at the top of the list, but a person could potentially also rent a small chunk of land from a farmer and build a small private archery range for use by themselves and their friends.

If you have family who owns farmland or a cabin up north or similar property you could ask your family if its okay to visit and shoot on their property. eg. I keep a recurve bow and assorted equipment at my parents' farm just for this express purpose, this way I don't have to bring archery equipment with me when I visit, it is already there.

#5. Yes, it definitely is possible.

Although it is difficult to obtain, some locations will sometimes allow archers to shoot on their premises. Especially if it is for a publicity stunt.

The photos below are of Canadian archery champions Wayne Pullen, Ron Lippert and Sheila Brown shooting inside the Eaton Centre in downtown Toronto prior to the 860 foot long shopping mall being opened. The photos were taken by Globe and Mail photographer Tibor Kelly in May 1976. (It is from the cover of the May 17th 1976 issue.)

In order to be able to shoot in the Eaton Centre the three champions had to don hard hats in case anything fell on them. We assume the construction crew was on lunch break at the time they took the photos, and the three champion archers and the Globe and Mail photographer certainly had the permission of the Eaton Corporation. These aren't the kinds of photographs you could get without obtaining permission first.

The photographs are from newspaper clippings saved by Sheila Brown. We can all thank her for having the foresight to save a copy of this historical moment in Toronto archery history.


Gap Shooting, An Intermediate Archery Skill

Q

"New to traditional archery. Am I the only one to use the part circled to aim? Is it a bad habit I should break?

Justin M."




A


Hello Justin!

It is called Gap Shooting.

Rare for a beginner. It is more of an intermediate skill that archers learn after they have been shooting for a longer time period.

Gap Shooting is useful for shooting at moving targets; Aiming off the arrowhead is slower to adjust your aim compared to Gap Shooting which lets you keep your eye on the target.

Gap Shooting is not so good for shooting long distances as it means you are aiming above the target and often cannot see it any more because the bow is physically in the way.

If you learn both styles of aiming (traditional aiming off the arrowhead and gap shooting) it makes you a more versatile archer.
Some archers even put marks and/or dots on the side of the riser next to where they are aiming so they can improve their accuracy. This is known as a "Gap Shooting Cheat Sheet". It isn't really cheating, it just makes it easier to remember exactly where you are aiming.

In the example to the right is a "Gap Shooting Cheat Sheet" which uses an alternating dot pattern, making it easier to remember which set of dots you are using for aiming purposes.

The archer then aims to the side of the marks or dots, using the gap between the target and the side of the bow as a measuring device. An archer using a right handed bow with too much gap would see their arrow go to the right. Too small of a gap and their arrow goes left. (For archers using a left handed bow the reverse would be true.)

Happy Shooting!

Sincerely,
Charles Moffat
CardioTrek.ca

Recommended Exercises for Archery

Q

Thank you for getting back to me. You have given me a lot to consider and just as soon as I finish organizing my schedule for the next while, I will be in touch to arrange to book [archery] lessons.
Meanwhile, I’d like to improve my strength and endurance, and would welcome any exercise suggestions and recommendations you offer.


Joy F.


A

Hey Joy!

Okay, here is a list of posts to read.

I strongly recommend the Warm Up Exercises / Stretches. You may want to ignore the weightlifting exercises and focus on the stretches. Don't do anything that is too challenging (eg. headstand pushups is not for everyone).

Yoga is also very good.

Warm Up Exercises and Stretches
http://www.cardiotrek.ca/2013/04/archery-warmup-exercises-stretches.html

More Advanced Stuff / Weightlifting
http://www.cardiotrek.ca/2013/04/how-to-train-for-archery-at-home.html

Weightlifting Tips for Archers
http://www.cardiotrek.ca/2013/05/10-weightlifting-tips-for-archers.html

More Weightlifting Tips for Archers
http://www.cardiotrek.ca/2015/06/10-weightlifting-tips-for-archers-part.html

If you have additional questions feel free to ask.

Have a great weekend!

Sincerely,
Charles Moffat
CardioTrek.ca


Awa Kenzo

Loud Pro Sports Games can cause Hearing Loss

Spectators at pro sports games (eg. pro football, baseball, basketball, etc) need to protect their ears while enjoying the action, say Canadian experts.

According to Statistics Canada, over one million adults across the country report having a hearing-related disability. In the USA, it is estimated one in five teens have suffered permanent hearing damage / hearing loss.

"Each time your ears have been ringing, that is evidence of hearing loss. There's no recovery mechanism in place for the death of those inner ear cells," said Dr. Tim Rindlisbacher in 2014, director of sports health at Cleveland Clinic in Toronto, where he also works with the CFL’s Toronto Argonauts and Mississauga SteeIheads of the Ontario Hockey League.

What he means is that once damaged, the damage is permanent. Your inner ear doesn't heal itself. The damaged parts are effectively dead and useless.

Rindlisbacher believes that season tickets holders over a long period of time could be at considerable risk of noise-induced hearing loss from the various noisemakers, blaring music and loud cheering. Made worse if a person listens to loud music regularly or are exposed to noise at work. "Hearing protection would be a really smart idea," Rindlisbacher said.

Sound intensity is measured in decibels (dB), where a 10 decibel increase in sound is equivalent to a 10-fold increase in energy experienced by the ear. So 90 dB is actually 10,000 times more energy than 50 dB.

Simple foam ear buds are fairly effective, Rindlisbacher said. Costlier noise-cancelling ear buds can completely eliminate some noise.

The Seattle Seahawks, who defeated the Denver Broncos in Sunday's Super Bowl, hold the record for noisiest stadium in the NFL. An official from Guinness World Records recorded the crowd noise at a Seahawks game in the fall at 137.6 decibels.

Decibel levels
  • Conversational speech: 60-70 dB.
  • Hair dryer, vacuums, lawnmowers: 80-90 dB.
  • Girls screaming at a rock concert: Can be over 100 dB.

Anything above 100 dB is very loud and sustained noise over 85 dB should be avoided.

Rindlisbacher is not alone in warning people that loud sports cause hearing damage.

Prof. Bill Hodgetts of the department of speech pathology and audiology at the University of Alberta in Edmonton published a study in 2006 in the Canadian Medical Association Journal, titled "Can Hockey Playoffs Harm Your Hearing?" in an effort to raise awareness about noise when people are enjoying themselves at a game.

The noise of an entire NHL playoff game is the equivalent to sitting next to a chainsaw for three hours, says Hodgetts. When the home team scored, the noise was temporarily like a plane taking off.

Hodgetts recommends ear plugs for fans.

Wearing ear plugs to loud events could prevent hearing loss and the need to wear hearing aids later in life.

Anyone in the Vaughan or Woodbridge area of Ontario is recommended to get a free hearing test at Omni Hearing in Vaughan.

The American and UK Tennis Industry

There is a lot of money in the tennis industry. A crazy amount when you look at the numbers.

The American tennis industry alone has 18 million players and the industry worldwide has over 100 million players. Americans currently buy approx. 3.4 million new tennis racquets and 127 million tennis balls per year. In the USA the tennis industry is worth over $6 billion dollars*.

* Not counting the gambling that also goes on court-side, and also not counting the sponsorship deals that tennis players make on the side worth millions. eg. Roger Federer made $65 million USD just from sponsorships in 2013.

Tennis is also very popular in the UK, where the tennis industry is worth $2.6 billion. The global value of the tennis industry is in the 10s of billions. So if you counted the sponsorships, the 3rd party gambling, etc then it is worth even more.

Gambling in the tennis industry is so prevalent and common that some gamblers have even found a way to game the system by exploiting a loophole known as "Courtsiding". Courtsiding involves spectators watching a live game and then gambling on the results of individual serves by betting on the person who won the serve seconds before the umpire inputs the results of the serve into the system. Essentially the Courtsider already knows who won the individual serve, so they aren't really gambling like a normal person would as they already know who won the serve when they place the bet at the last second. What they are counting on is the umpire being slow to input the results of the serve into the computer, meanwhile the Courtsider (and often an accomplice) places the bet and seconds later the computers on the online gambling websites are updated with the results, but it is too late. The Courtsider has already won on the virtue of being a second or two faster than the umpire.

Courtsiding has also become so common many tennis events now ban cellphones and the use of bluetooth devices, so some savvy Courtsiders are now hiding their bluetooth devices under their long hair or hats. In Europe there are so many Courtsiders it is even skewing the odds, which means it isn't even profitable in most European countries.

Now you might think, wait, why don't they just have a delay or something to prevent people from doing this? Except nobody knows when the tennis players will win the serve so you can't predict when that will happen. So they can't make a delay as it is too unpredictable.



Many of these online gambling sites (aka bookie websites), especially those in the UK, like Toals and others allow people to bet on almost anything. Sports, politics, many different topics. You can probably even bet on whether the UK will have a no deal Brexit. At present that looks like a guarantee.

Personally I think the only thing I would ever gamble on is horse races, and only for fun. Less than $20 for a single day at the track. Why?

Because I used to work at a racetrack when I was younger. I like horses. Someday I would like to have my own horse farm and do horseback archery.

I also know that in Ontario the horse racing industry is propped up by gambling. Without gambling the industry wouldn't even exist.

So if I lost $20 at the race track that is basically a donation to support Ontario's horse racing industry. Go there, watch the horses, eat some food, donate your $20, and then go home. Enjoy the entertainment of watching the horses thunder past.

That said I am taking my son and wife to the Hanover Racetrack (a small racetrack in Grey County, Ontario) this weekend, where we will get to see the "horsies" go thundering by.

Earlier in the day we will be visiting family and petting kittens.

And then the day after we are going to a petting zoo.

An animal filled Labour Day Long Weekend. Visit family. See kittens, horses and the petting zoo. Wanna bet we will have fun doing all that? You betcha!

Youth Recurve Bow / Youth Archery Equipment

The following is a follow up email I sent to a client after teaching his daughter this past weekend. After the lesson he had a series of questions about purchasing equipment that I answered, during which I mentioned my Archery Equipment Checklist.
 
Hey I!

Good meeting you both on Saturday!

If you are considering buying equipment here is that equipment checklist that I mentioned after the lesson:


The biggest change is that you will be looking for a youth recurve bow instead of an adult recurve bow given in the example. When your daughter is 12 roughly she should be tall enough for an adult bow, in which case you could sell the youth bow and buy a new one. (The good news is used archery equipment, if you take good care of it, usually has a fairly good resale value of about 80% of what you paid for it.)

So for example you could get something similar to a Samick youth bow in 14 lbs. (She was shooting 12 lbs on Saturday, but an extra 2 lbs will be okay.)


Youth Samick Recurve Bow - Priced at $159.85 CDN on Amazon.ca


If you have any follow up questions feel free to ask. Have a great day!


Sincerely,
Charles Moffat
CardioTrek.ca

2-in-1 Archery Hand Guard / Arm Guard, Product Review



I purchased the armguard / handguard shown in the above two photos for use with longbows and horsebows a few months ago and I have been wearing it during that time period whenever I am shooting any of my longbows, flatbows or horsebows that don't have an arrow rest.

The handguard protects your hand from the fletching ripping into your skin as the arrow goes past your hand at a hefty speed. The flatbow I have been testing it on is 36 lbs, while the horsebow I have been using lately is 50 lbs.

The armguard is also excellent (and easy to put on and adjust with the drawstrings), although it only covers the forearm. Some archers who habitually hit their elbows or even their biceps may want a larger armguard that offers protecting for their elbow or bicep. I fortunately don't have that problem.

Fashion wise it looks very good and the colour I got even matched my thumb release glove I got years ago, thus whenever I am shooting with a thumb release on my horsebow they at least match.

Price wise it was only $19.99 CDN on Amazon.ca. Visit the following product listing:
  • www.amazon.ca/gp/product/B07P9GDS5M/
Now there are probably fancier handguards out there, just like there are cheaper handguards out there, but a two-in-one solution for $19.99 CDN that is both a handguard and armguard, and it works very well and easy to adjust... well that is a very good deal.


Notes

This product review was not sponsored. I simply wanted a new armguard / handguard that I can use with my various longbows and horsebows, both for my personal use and for my archery students to use.

Now that I have confirmed that this one works well I may in the future buy a left-handed version for any left eye dominance students who want to learn longbow or horsebow.

Are you looking to learn how to shoot horsebow or longbow? Sign up for 3 or more archery lessons in Toronto and make a request to learn a specific style (or multiple styles).

The Old Archers Thumb Trick

Pretend for a moment you are used to standing up and aiming at something and then one day you decide to try shooting while sitting down or kneeling or even sitting cross-legged. Suddenly the angle of the ground to the target has shifted and it confuses you as to where to aim.

You could shoot... but if you've never shot from a kneeling or sitting position before then you could miss easily. It really does take practice and experience to learn how to shoot from sitting / kneeling positions with a greater degree of accuracy.

Fortunately there is an old archers trick for how to adjust your aim and make sure you are still aiming at the correct spot.

#1. While standing use your thumb to measure the distance between the center of your target and where you would normally aim off the tip of your arrow. Use the wrinkles and marks on the sides of your thumb to measure the distance. (This is where having a wrinkly old thumb is arguably better.)

#2. Sit down or kneel and then use your thumb again, remembering the same spot on the side of your thumb to measure the distance between the target and your aiming point.

#3. Now that you have a better idea of where to aim you can use that point of reference to do your first shot with little worry of missing.

Note - If you don't use the traditional method of aiming off the arrowhead and instead use the Gap Shooting method of aiming then you don't really have to worry about this problem. Using Gap Shooting you can just aim using that method and your shot will still be accurate.\

If you don't know how to Gap Shoot or want to improve your aiming techniques you can always sign up for archery lessons in Toronto.

In other news a friend wore the shirt below to the archery range and I decided to get a photo of it. Happy Shooting!


Whitetail Deer at the Toronto Archery Range

The video below is from last Thursday (August 22nd), wherein I got within 8 yards of a whitetail doe at the Toronto Archery Range located at E. T. Seton Park, and also pretty close to the fawn too.




The following video is a compilation of 6 smaller (and older) videos of whitetail deer at the archery range. They visit the range quite often and have no predators in the region (unless you count cars, trucks, etc).

Now you might think, gee, isn't that dangerous? Not really. We leave the deer alone, except for taking photos and video, and they leave us alone. The deer at the range are a bit curious about what we silly humans are doing, but otherwise leave us alone.



Playing Sports while wearing Hearing Aids

Do you need advice about hearing aids while playing sports or exercising?

Are you wearing your hearing aids while exercising or competing in sports and are worried about damaging the batteries or the hearing aid itself?

Many people would agree that maintaining a healthier lifestyle is important in ensuring a better quality of life. Having a health-first attitude often includes some type of physical exercise. eg. Archery! However within archery, which is a very social activity, there are certain factors like being able to hear when people shout "Clear!" and "Live!" which are useful for your safety. So there is certainly a safety benefit. Even golfers typically shout "Fore!" when hitting a long drive and to warn people to watch out for incoming golf balls.

Safety aside, having an active lifestyle can also mean engaging in organized team sports, while others may prefer activities at a singular or small-group level such as hiking, dog walking, competitive dog walking, jogging, bike riding, or even bird watching (a lot of walking and hiking involved in bird watching).

And with respect to bird watching, which isn't really sporty but does require exercise, you probably also want to be able to hear the birds you are looking for.

Yet for individuals who wear hearing aids, there may be some hesitation to take part in fitness programs and/or various sports due to concerns about potential damage to these rather important and often expensive devices. Let’s face it; they need their hearing aids for many other facets of their lives, and they likely want to safeguard their financial investment as well. (Although if you live in Ontario/Canada, most of the cost is covered by OHIP.)

Regardless of the sports activity, or the age of the person for that matter, they should be able to enjoy themselves without having to worry about their hearing aids. And now, for the most part, they can; provided that they take a few precautionary steps with their hearing aids before, during, and after their exercise routines or games.

Hearing impairment does not have to be a hurdle to pursuing an active lifestyle. (I really wanted to put a hurdles gif on the right side here, but was unable to find one that I liked.) By maintaining and managing their hearing aids effectively, people with hearing loss can take part in and enjoy any number of sports and/or other types of physical activities.

To assist in learning more about these types of situations, the hearing loss specialists at Omni Hearing in Woodbridge offer the following advice and tips for hearing aid wearers who want to exercise or take part in sports:

Caring for Hearing Aids When Exercising and Playing Sports

  1. After a day of exercising/sports, place hearing aids in a dehumidifier box overnight to get rid of extra moisture.
  2. Upon removal from the dehumidifier, brush hearing aids to clean excess wax/dirt you may have accumulated.
  3. Wear a regular headband or hat to prevent excess sweat from saturating the hearing aids with moisture.
  4. For behind-the-ear hearing aids, cover them with a sweat-resistant pouch or sleeve.
  5. At times during an activity, use a portable puffer to blow air through molding/tubing.
  6. Wear properly-sized headgear (helmets, toques, caps) to accommodate your hearing aids.
  7. For contact sports, use a specially-designed clip that secures hearing aids to clothing to prevent it from getting knocked off and damaged.
  8. If you are exercising regularly apply an antimicrobial agent every few days to ward off bacteria, microbes, and prevent infection. Last thing you need is an inner ear infection.
  9. Keep extra tubing on hand at all times in the event of damage or dirt/sweat blockage.
  10. Identify a local hearing centre in case of emergency when traveling / exercising overseas.
  11. Select the proper type of hearing aids and ensure the right fit for the activities/sports.
  12. If possible, get water-resistant hearing aids. There are various kinds of water proof hearing aids that are ideal for swimming, snorkeling and similar activities.
  13. There are also accessories you can get to help make your regular hearing aids more water resistant / protected.
  14. Ask a Professional about Managing Hearing Aids in Relation to Playing Sports (see below).

Ask a Professional about Managing Hearing Aids in Relation to Playing Sports

Individuals with hearing loss who may have questions or concerns about wearing hearing aids while participating in various exercise regimens, physical activities, and/or contact sports would find it beneficial to consult with a hearing specialist from the Omni Hearing, one of the leading clinics in the GTA and ready to help people to achieve their goals (sports and otherwise).

In the same way that having the proper clothing/equipment and stretching the muscles before a recreational or sporting activity can enhance the experience, a visit to a hearing centre such as Omni Hearing in Woodbridge can help to better prepare those who need or want to wear their hearing aids under these types of circumstances. During this visit and consultation, hearing aid users can discuss and/or address matters related to:

  • Having extra batteries on hand, should you need them.
  • Other contents of the sports bag / accessories.
  • The condition of their hearing aids.
  • The correct fit of their hearing aids.
  • Accessories specifically for use in sports.
  • Water proof or water resistant hearing aids.
  • Back-up plans for any unforeseen situations.

For additional information on the hearing services offered by the hearing aids specialists from Omni Hearing in Woodbridge by calling 905-605-4593 or visiting their store at 8611 Weston Rd Unit 17, Woodbridge.

The 2019 Seton Archery Tournament

The 2019 Seton Archery Tournament is tomorrow.

When - Saturday, July 6th 2019.

Where - Located at the Toronto Archery Range, located within E. T. Seton Park.

Maps and Parking Info is available at:


Who - Local archers from the GTA will be competing. International archers welcome.

What Styles - Traditional Barebow, Olympic Archery, Compound Archery categories.

What to Bring - Your bows, arrows, archery equipment, and food/drinks to share. There will be a potluck picnic and BBQ.

Want More Info?

Visit https://www.facebook.com/events/1114323525427983/ to learn more about the 2019 Seton Archery Tournament.

 This is the 3rd tournament of its kind thus far. The first two were in 2016 and 2018. In 2016 I took 2nd place in the compound division. In 2018 I was a judge. I have given thought to participating in a different category this year (so that I can eventually win in all 3 categories), but I might just spectate instead as I have been planning on bringing my 2 year old son with me tomorrow and he can be handful.

My wife however is thinking of participating in the barebow category. So we shall see what happens. She could compete and I could watch the toddler.

Later today I am going to an event that will last until later in the evening and I expect to be quite exhausted tomorrow, so most likely I will just be a spectator.

Below is the medals and trophies from the 2018 competition. [Photo by Ackson Lee.]


Whistling Arrowheads

For fun I got out my whistling arrowheads today and did a few long distance shots with my vintage 1972 Black Hawk Avenger (40 lbs) recurve bow. One of my favourite bows.

Whistling arrowheads don't really have a practical purpose in modern times, beyond having fun with them. Historically they were used as signal arrows or warning arrows.

Mongolians and Tibetans also reputedly used "howling arrowheads" in combat, which sounded like a ghost from a distance, and in warfare would demoralize the enemy as it would "sound like death coming towards you". The howling arrowheads used a different design which created a different pitch when the arrow flew through the air.

Below: My Black Hawk Avenger with two arrows tipped with whistling arrowheads.


Below: Four photos of the same thing, from slightly different angles while I play with the focus lens.





And lastly, because it was there, I take a couple shots at the deer painted on the target to get it in the heart zone (I used field points for these shots instead of whistlers).


Boxing Training Methods

Boxing training is one of the toughest out there


To keep fit and maintain our health and well-being, training and exercising on a regular basis is essential. It’s that simple, really. A healthy body usually results in a healthy mind, as they say.

With a vast array of training techniques out there, with all different kinds of athletes training in different ways depending on what suits them and their body best, we’ve decided to focus on boxing and the typical excises and fitness routines that a boxer might undertake.

Whether you’re looking to become the next Rocky Balboa - a phenomenon that has spawned numerous movies and other media like the Rocky slot game online - or simply keen to keep fit and maintain a healthy lifestyle, boxing training is arguably the hardest training to do and the most effective way to achieve any fitness goals you might have.

Actor Sylvester Stallone had to train like a boxer and a bodybuilder for the role, which he certainly aced, didn’t he?

Below are a few typical training exercises that a boxer might undertake ahead of a big fight or even just enjoy during a light exercise routine.

The Dragon Flag

We’re starting a bit extreme here, admittedly. First coming into prominence following the Rocky films, ‘The Dragon Flag’ exercise is a highly effective ab exercise which forces the muscles of the stomach to eccentrically contract. They are in tension, but lengthening. This is very similar to the downward phase of a bicep curl.

How to Dragon Flag:
  1. Lay on floor whilst holding onto something stable with your hands by your head
  2. With only your head and shoulders in contact with the floor, raise your entire body from the floor
  3. Keeping as straight as possible, lower yourself to the ground
  4. Pause for one second when at the bottom of the exercise
  5. Then return back in an upright position
  6. All the time ensuring only your head and shoulders are in contact with the floor


Strength Training Myth

A theory even Rocky’s trainer in the movie had, that to win fights and be at peak performance, strength training and therefore building muscle tone is vitally important. According to the Strength and Conditioning Journal, despite this theory coming from a classic movie, it’s actually correct.

They say: "Many boxing traditionalists and trainers mistakenly believe that strength training will have a detrimental effect on boxers, making them slow or muscle bound. The boxer can greatly benefit from the proven effects of a proper strength-training program.”

Jump Rope Sans Rope

Jump rope is a boxing exercise most of you are probably familiar with. Either you’ve attempted it yourself as a standard jump rope warm-up or you’ve seen a boxer do it, perhaps. Believe it or not, though, you don’t actually need a rope to carry out this exercise. Simply take a minute to jump in place, moving your arms in small circular motion as though you are actually holding a jump rope. It’s an excellent way to get the heart pumping at the beginning of your workout session and will certainly wake your whole body up before you get into full flow.

Shadow Boxing


Boxing fans will certainly be aware of this one. It really is the pièce de résistance. You don’t necessarily need pads to gain the full effect of this exercise. By simply punching the air, keeping your fists up to your face, keeping your knees soft and your weight forward on your toes, shadow boxing for a few minutes can certainly tire the body out.

The Assassin's Trail - Archery Fantasy Book

Hello Archery Fans!

Some of my archery students know that I also write fiction and non-fiction. eg. I sometimes publish articles in Archery Focus Magazine.

Regarding my fiction work back in April I published a paperback of one of my older books, The Assassin's Trail.

The Assassin's Trail paperback is available on Amazon.ca for $10.43.

Or if you prefer the ebook version, you can get The Assassin's Trail ebook for $2.99.

Plot Snippet:
Five years after undergoing the Test of Manhood, young Wrathgar is tasked with bringing back the head of the murderer Muddenklaw who sought vengeance against his own people and murdered innocents. But Muddenklaw has escaped from the Snowfell Mountains and fled south past the dreaded Ogre Swamp to the more civilized lands to the south, becoming a murderer-for-hire. Will Wrathgar be able to find the murderer, and bring about justice for those who were killed? Or will Muddenklaw escape into a world of assassins who hide in the shadows waiting to strike? Who will win in the showdown between the barbarian ranger and the assassin?

So is there archery in the book? Of course there is. Lots of it, plus also tracking, woodsman skills, flintknapping, murder, mayhem, magic and more! I am currently editing Book Two of the series, wherein Wrathgar and a team of other characters are faced with even deadlier dangers fighting the priests and followers of a dark god of murder. I am hoping to have Book Two available before Christmas 2019.

Happy Reading and Happy Shooting!

Sincerely,
Charles Moffat
CardioTrek.ca




Archery Biathlon Scoring

Q

How does scoring work in an archery biathlon?

A

In the regular biathlon (skiing with rifles) the Biathletes ski as fast as they can, then they must quickly calm down to shoot a target the size of a loonie 50 meters (55 yards) away from a prone position and shoot a second target the size of a Tim Horton's coffee cup lid from a standing position. Each time they miss they have to ski a penalty loop that is 150 meters long, which costs them a lot of valuable time.

Thus it is definitely a race. The first one across the finishing line wins.

So technically there is no scoring. You either get across the finishing line first or your don't.

There are also a number of challenges the biathletes face: How much wax they have on their skis, whether the snow is soft or hard or muddy, wind, rain, snow, fog. It is a true challenge and every competition will be uniquely different due to the snow and weather conditions.

The Archery Biathlon is very similar. They still have the challenge of skiing in adverse conditions and then calming down to shoot, but shooting a bow is much more challenging as they have to be very calm to get more accuracy.

So what are the differences?

#1. Archers don't shoot from a prone position, although they could in theory shoot from a kneeling position.
#2. They shoot three arrows instead of two bullets.
#3. They must hit a 20 cm wide target that is 20 meters away. It doesn't matter where they hit on the target (center or edge), so long as it is a confirmed hit.

So for every arrow that misses they still have to do the penalty loop, which is normally* 150 meters.

* The exact rules of archery biathlons can sometimes vary upon who is hosting them. The hosts make the rules.

Note - During the summer archers could still do something similar if they wanted to. "Run Archery" is a similar sport, but archers could also in theory use roller-blades or other methods of transportation to create their own sport. eg. Equestrian archers could use the above rules to compete on horseback.

Fun Fact

The Norse god Ullr is quite literally the god of the archery biathlon.

Trust the Norse to actually have a god for this sport, which back then was also a matter of hunting, survival and warfare.


Fast Flight Bowstrings vs Vintage Bows

Q

"I have a question if you have a second.

That [vintage Black Hawk Scorpion] bow I sent pics of. My buddy Forrest made me a string for free but its ff [fast flight]. Will that hurt it?

- Parker S."


The bow in question, a Black Hawk Scorpion:





A

Hey Parker!

Risky. I wouldn't use fast flight on any of my vintage bows.

It was good you asked before trying it. Would be a real shame to see a Black Hawk ruined.

So weird thing... you know how bowstrings are usually 14 or 16 strands, right? So if people really want their bow to shoot faster they can also just make a bowstring that is 10 or 12 strands instead. The weight reduction on the bow string is what makes fast flight string faster, but other strings can do the same thing, you just have to use less of it. It does lower the life expectancy of the bowstring because it is then less durable, but if speed is what the person wants then it doesn't matter.
 
The downside of fast flight string is that it tends to damage bows by cutting into the wood / fibreglass. A friend of mine once experimented with making a bowstring made out of fishing line, which turned out to be a very idea. Even worse than FF judging by the amount of damage it did.

Parker: Ok thank you. I think he just wasn't thinking about it when he made it. What should I use? B50?

Yep.

Also if you ever get into making your own bowstrings, expect the first 5 to be horrible but usable. By the time you make #10 you will be probably be happy with their quality. It is a fast learning curve.

Parker: Ok thank you very much.


Win Two Archery Lessons from Cardio Trek

Hey Toronto!

So one of my archery students has run into a scheduling snafu. His boss has decided to give him a lot of overtime, even on weekends, and this has cut into his ability to practice archery / take archery lessons in Toronto.

Rather than have his archery lessons go to waste however he has asked me to donate them to a worthy student who needs help. So he purchased 10 archery lessons, got to use 8 of them, and had 2 lessons remaining.

So that is two archery lessons up for grabs. The value of the lessons is $120 CDN, and not redeemable for cash.

But how do I decide who is worthy? How do I tell who REALLY wants the two archery lessons?

What if I had some sort of contest, or a draw, or maybe a combination of the two?

I am thinking a combination of both a contest/draw. So how would that work?

Well, I am going to make it a social media contest, and the number of entries determines how many times a person's name is put into the draw.

How to Win Two Archery Lessons from Cardio Trek

1. If you want to enter your name in the draw the first thing you have to do is post an archery themed image on a social media account (Twitter, Instagram, your blog/website, etc) and include a link to www.cardiotrek.ca/p/archery-lessons.html

2. The site must be publicly accessible by non-members so that I can view it and confirm the archery image and link exists without needing to join/login. eg. If you post the link on a private Facebook account or a private group I cannot see then it doesn't count.

3. Then you need to email me via cardiotrek@gmail.com and include the link(s) in your email to where you posted on social media platforms to be included in the draw.

If you have any questions about this contest or cannot wait to book your archery lessons, simply email me. You can always just book your archery lessons and then maybe win extra archery lessons. That works too, right?

The contest is also open to former students who want more archery lessons, so that is certainly an option too.

4. For each time you posted on a different social media account your name will be included multiple times in the draw, using the following system:

  1. Posted once on social media = 1 copy of your name in the draw.
  2. Post twice = 3 copies in the draw.
  3. Post thrice = 5 copies in the draw.
  4. Post four times = 7 copies in the draw.
  5. Post 5 times = 9 copies in the draw.
  6. Post 6 times = 11 copies in the draw.
  7. Etc. The formula is X + (X-1) = D. Or X2 - 1 = D. Whichever. This system rewards the people who put the most effort in to the process, while still giving the person who did one Twitter post a chance.

So for example if you post on 10 different accounts your name is included in the draw 19 times. Remember - Posting on the same social media account multiple times gets you nothing extra. It only counts if you do it on multiple different social media platforms.

5. The winner will be randomly chosen from a hat (my brown Ducks Unlimited Hat) on May 28th (after the May 2-4 Long Weekend) by my toddler son Richard. I will record the draw on my cellphone, mostly because Richard is a toddler and very cute. So it is rather mandatory that when he is doing something adorable that he is being recorded. :)

6. Everyone who enters the contest automatically gets 10% off the purchase of one archery lesson. So even if you don't win you can still sign up for archery lessons and get a discount. Note - This is not cumulative with my Seniors Discount or my Veterans Discount. You can only get 1 discount at a time.

7. If you win the contest you can also choose to give your archery lessons away to a friend using one of my Gift Vouchers.

Looking to sign up for archery lessons, boxing lessons, swimming lessons, ice skating lessons or personal training sessions? Start by emailing cardiotrek@gmail.com and lets talk fitness!

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