Personal Training in Toronto Archery Lessons in Toronto Boxing Lessons in Toronto Ice Skating Lessons in Toronto Swimming Lessons in Toronto
Sign up for personal training / sports training by emailing

Expensive Exercise Equipment Ideas

Thinking of buying a loved one (or yourself) some expensive exercise equipment for Christmas this year? Well, maybe you should think again.

Are these actually worth the cost? Or are they overpriced? There are less expensive alternatives that offer the same or similar benefits.

Some of the options below (like the mirror) are really rather silly, but appeal to people who are vain about their appearances.

  1. Peloton Bike: High-end stationary exercise bike with a built-in screen for streaming live and on-demand workouts. Price: Starting at $1,495 for the bike, plus a monthly subscription fee for classes.

  2. Mirror Home Gym: Interactive mirror with embedded technology for streaming fitness classes and providing real-time feedback. Price: Starting at $1,495 for the mirror, plus a monthly subscription fee for classes.

  3. Technogym Kinesis Personal: Multi-functional fitness station with adjustable cables for resistance training exercises. Price: Starting at $7,000.

  4. Hydrow Rower: High-end rowing machine with a built-in screen for streaming live and on-demand rowing workouts. Price: Starting at $2,495 for the rower, plus a monthly subscription fee for classes.

  5. Tonal Smart Home Gym: Wall-mounted resistance training system with built-in AI technology for personalized workouts. Price: Starting at $2,995, plus a monthly subscription fee for classes.

  6. Woodway Curve Treadmill: Self-powered treadmill with a curved design for a more natural running experience. Price: Starting at $7,000.

  7. NordicTrack Incline Trainer: Treadmill with adjustable incline levels for simulating uphill running. Price: Starting at $1,999.

  8. Bowflex Max Trainer: Hybrid elliptical and stair climber machine for high-intensity interval training. Price: Starting at $999.

  9. WaterRower Rowing Machine: Wooden rowing machine with a water resistance system for a smooth and realistic rowing motion. Price: Starting at $1,160.

  10. TrueForm Runner Treadmill: Non-motorized treadmill with a curved design for a more natural running gait. Price: Starting at $4,495.

  11. Precor Elliptical Trainer: Commercial-grade elliptical trainer with advanced features and durability. Price: Starting at $2,000.

  12. Assault AirBike: Fan-powered exercise bike with unlimited resistance for intense cardio workouts. Price: Starting at $699.

  13. Keiser M3i Indoor Cycle: Commercial-grade indoor cycling bike with magnetic resistance and Bluetooth connectivity. Price: Starting at $1,995.

  14. Rogue Fitness Monster Rack: Heavy-duty power rack for strength training exercises like squats, bench presses, and pull-ups. Price: Starting at $1,000.

  15. Concept2 SkiErg: Skiing machine for full-body cardio and strength workouts. Price: Starting at $815.

  16. TRX Suspension Trainer: Portable suspension training system for bodyweight exercises targeting multiple muscle groups. Price: Starting at $169.95.

  17. Technogym Skillmill: Self-powered treadmill with a curved deck for high-intensity interval training and speed work. Price: Starting at $12,000.

  18. Precor AMT (Adaptive Motion Trainer): Adaptive elliptical cross-trainer with adjustable stride length and resistance levels. Price: Starting at $7,395.

  19. Hoist Fitness ROC-IT Selectorized Machines: Selectorized strength training machines with dynamic movement patterns for improved muscle activation. Price: Starting at $3,000 per machine.

  20. Body-Solid Functional Training Center: Multi-station functional training machine for full-body workouts. Price: Starting at $3,000.

While these exercise equipment options may offer advanced features, durability, and high-quality construction, their high price tags may not always align with the needs and preferences of all users, leading to debates about their overall value for money. Additionally, more affordable alternatives may provide similar workout experiences without the hefty investment.

How to get a Beach Perfect Body during December using Cheat Days

When it comes to weight loss, finding an approach that suits your lifestyle and preferences is key, but for many people doing this during the December Holiday Season can be quite tricky.

But it can be done and there is a trick to it: You schedule your cheat days on holidays and the rest of December you embrace a strategy of following a balanced diet and mindful eating.

So you have your 'regular balanced diet days', and you have your 'go ahead and eat holidays'.

Here's a suggested approach for weight loss via dieting in December 2023:

  1. Set Realistic Goals: Determine your weight loss goals for December and make sure they are achievable and realistic. It's important to aim for gradual and sustainable weight loss rather than quick fixes. So if you say "I want to lose 1 to 4 lbs during December" then that is a doable goal for most people.

  2. Focus on Nutrient-Dense Foods: Incorporate a variety of nutrient-dense foods into your regular days. Include lean proteins, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and healthy fats in your meals to ensure you're getting essential nutrients while managing your calorie intake.

  3. Practice Portion Control: Pay attention to portion sizes and be mindful of your calorie intake. Use smaller plates and bowls to help control portion sizes and avoid overeating. Consider using portion control tools or measuring cups to ensure accuracy.

  4. Plan for Special Occasions: On holidays or special occasions, you can allow yourself to enjoy some indulgences and have a cheat day. Choose your favorite treats or holiday dishes mindfully and savor them without guilt. You should also have three extra cheat days So for 2023 your cheat days will likely be mostly on Sundays: 3rd, 10th, 17th, 24th, 25th, 31st. The 25th/Christmas Day falls on a Monday, so that is effectively a bonus cheat day. So you get 6 cheat days and 25 regular days.

  5. Prioritize Balance: While cheat days can be enjoyable and provide a mental break from restrictions, it's important to maintain a balanced approach. Focus on maintaining a healthy and balanced diet on regular days, emphasizing whole foods, lean proteins, and plenty of fruits and vegetables.

  6. Stay Active: Incorporate regular physical activity into your routine throughout December. Exercise can help burn calories, boost metabolism, and support your weight loss efforts. Aim for a combination of cardiovascular exercise, strength training, and flexibility exercises to achieve overall fitness. You could even hire a personal trainer to meet with you once per week during December to help you exercise and stay on track.

  7. Stay Hydrated: Drink plenty of water throughout the day. Sometimes we mistake thirst for hunger, so staying hydrated can help prevent unnecessary snacking. Water can also support digestion and overall well-being.

  8. Seek Support: Consider seeking support from a registered dietitian or a weight loss program to help guide you on your journey. They can provide personalized advice and help you create a sustainable and healthy eating plan.

Remember, the key to successful weight loss is consistency, balance, and creating a healthy lifestyle rather than relying solely on cheat days. Find a dieting approach that works for you, aligns with your goals, and promotes long-term success and overall well-being.

The Afterburn Effect Explained Scientifically

The Afterburn Effect, also known as excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), refers to the increased calorie burning and metabolic activity that occurs after a workout. It is the body's way of recovering and restoring itself to its pre-exercise state.

During exercise, your body requires more energy to fuel the muscles and maintain physiological processes. Oxygen plays a vital role in this energy production. As you exercise, your body consumes more oxygen to break down carbohydrates, fats, and sometimes proteins to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the energy currency of the cells.

After you finish your workout, your body continues to need oxygen to restore various physiological functions, such as replenishing energy stores, removing lactic acid, repairing muscle tissues, and regulating body temperature. This increased oxygen demand continues even when you're no longer exercising.

The Afterburn Effect is characterized by an elevated metabolic rate and increased calorie expenditure during this post-workout period. This occurs due to several factors:

  1. Elevation of heart rate and breathing: After intense exercise, your heart rate and breathing remain elevated as your body works to recover and restore oxygen levels. This increased cardiovascular activity contributes to additional calorie burning.

  2. Thermogenesis: The Afterburn Effect involves a process called excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), where your body generates heat as a result of increased metabolism. This thermogenic effect leads to further calorie expenditure.

  3. Replenishment of energy stores: During exercise, your body utilizes glycogen (stored carbohydrates) for energy. After the workout, your body replenishes these glycogen stores, which requires energy expenditure and contributes to the Afterburn Effect.

  4. Muscle repair and growth: Exercise, particularly strength training, induces small muscle damage. During the recovery process, your body repairs and rebuilds the muscles, which requires energy and contributes to increased calorie burning.

  5. Hormonal response: Intense exercise stimulates the release of certain hormones like epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine, and growth hormone. These hormones can increase metabolic rate, lipolysis (the breakdown of fat), and overall energy expenditure, leading to a prolonged Afterburn Effect.

It's important to note that the magnitude and duration of the Afterburn Effect depend on various factors, including exercise intensity, duration, and individual fitness levels. High-intensity workouts, such as interval training or resistance training, tend to elicit a greater Afterburn Effect compared to low-intensity exercises*.

While the Afterburn Effect can contribute to additional calorie burning, it should be seen as a complement to an overall balanced exercise routine and healthy lifestyle, including proper nutrition and regular physical activity. Incorporating a combination of cardiovascular exercises, strength training, and interval training into your fitness routine can help maximize the Afterburn Effect and support weight management goals.

* Wait, are there low intensity exercises that can still activate a large Afterburn Effect?

Yes, it is true. Some low intensity exercises are surprisingly good at triggering a large Afterburn Effect.

In general, high-intensity exercises tend to elicit a greater Afterburn Effect compared to low-intensity exercises. However, it's important to note that the total calorie burn during low-intensity exercises may still be lower compared to high-intensity exercises, even if the Afterburn Effect is higher. Nonetheless, there are certain low-intensity exercises that can still contribute to a surprisingly significant Afterburn Effect. Here are a few examples:

  1. Long-Duration Cardiovascular Exercise: Engaging in low-intensity, steady-state cardiovascular exercises such as long-distance jogging, cycling, or swimming for an extended period can lead to a prolonged Afterburn Effect. While the calorie burn during the exercise may be lower compared to high-intensity interval training, the duration of the exercise can contribute to a more pronounced Afterburn Effect.

  2. Walking: Walking is a low-impact, low-intensity exercise that can be done for an extended period. Walking for longer durations, especially at an incline or brisk pace, can increase the Afterburn Effect. Although the calorie burn during a walk may be relatively modest, the cumulative effect of an extended low-intensity exercise session can lead to a notable calorie expenditure.

  3. Pilates: Pilates is a low-impact exercise method that focuses on core strength, stability, and flexibility. While it is generally considered low-intensity, the controlled movements and engagement of multiple muscle groups can still contribute to an Afterburn Effect. Additionally, incorporating resistance or adding equipment like resistance bands or weights to Pilates exercises can further enhance the Afterburn Effect.

  4. Yoga: Yoga typically involves a combination of poses, stretches, and controlled breathing techniques. While it is often viewed as a low-intensity exercise for relaxation and flexibility, certain yoga styles and sequences can elevate the heart rate and engage muscles to a greater extent. Dynamic, flowing yoga sequences like Vinyasa or Power Yoga can contribute to a modest Afterburn Effect.

  5. Tai Chi: Tai Chi is a Chinese martial art that emphasizes slow, controlled movements and deep breathing. While it may be considered low-intensity, the deliberate nature of the movements and the engagement of various muscle groups can still lead to an Afterburn Effect. Additionally, the mind-body connection and focus involved in Tai Chi practice can enhance overall relaxation and well-being.

It's important to remember that the Afterburn Effect from low-intensity exercises may not be as significant as high-intensity exercises. However, these activities offer other benefits such as improved cardiovascular health, stress reduction, and increased flexibility. Combining low-intensity exercises with other forms of physical activity, such as strength training or high-intensity interval training, can help maximize overall calorie burn and fitness benefits.

5 Exercises to do in October while taking in the Fall Colours

Ontario (including Toronto) has a lot to offer during October, including beautiful landscapes and vibrant autumn colors, making it an ideal time for outdoor exercises that allow you to take a camera and capture the stunning surroundings. Here are five exercises that you can enjoy outdoors while exploring and photographing the fall scenery:

  1. Hiking: Ontario is known for its diverse hiking trails, which become even more picturesque during the fall season. Lace up your hiking boots and embark on a scenic hike through parks and conservation areas. Capture the colorful foliage, serene lakes, and breathtaking vistas along the way. Popular trails in Ontario include the Bruce Trail, Algonquin Provincial Park, and the Niagara Escarpment.

  2. Cycling: October weather in Ontario is often crisp and refreshing, making it an excellent time for cycling. Take your bike out for a spin on scenic trails or designated bike paths. Capture the changing leaves, picturesque countryside, and charming towns as you pedal through Ontario's picturesque landscapes. The Waterfront Trail, Niagara-on-the-Lake, and the Thousand Islands Parkway are popular cycling routes.

  3. Outdoor Yoga: Find a peaceful outdoor spot, such as a park or a tranquil lakeside area, to practice yoga amidst the fall beauty. Roll out your yoga mat and strike a pose while surrounded by the vibrant colors of autumn. Not only will you enjoy the physical benefits of yoga, but you can also capture moments of serenity and tranquility through your camera lens.

  4. Kayaking or Canoeing: Ontario is home to numerous lakes, rivers, and waterways that provide a serene and scenic environment for kayaking or canoeing. Grab your paddle, hop into a kayak or canoe, and explore the calm waters while immersing yourself in the fall foliage. Capture the reflections of colorful leaves in the water, serene wildlife, and the peacefulness of being surrounded by nature.

  5. Nature Photography Walk: Take a leisurely stroll through parks, gardens, or nature reserves, focusing on capturing the beauty of fall with your camera. Look for interesting textures, patterns, and details in the foliage, as well as wildlife, birds, and insects that may be more active during this time. Experiment with different angles, lighting, and compositions to create stunning nature photographs.

Remember to check weather conditions, dress appropriately, and bring any necessary equipment or safety gear for your chosen outdoor activity. Don't forget to follow local guidelines and respect the environment while capturing the beauty of Ontario's fall season through your camera lens.

Fad Diets of the 2010s

Here is a list of some fad diets that gained popularity during the 2010 to 2019 period:

  1. Paleo Diet (Caveman Diet): The Paleo diet emphasizes eating foods that were presumed to be available to early humans, such as lean meats, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds, while avoiding processed foods, dairy, grains, and legumes.

  2. Juice Cleanses and Detox Diets: These diets involve consuming only fruit or vegetable juices for a specified period, with the idea of detoxifying the body. They often lack essential nutrients and can lead to unsustainable weight loss.

  3. Gluten-Free Diet for Weight Loss: Some people adopted a gluten-free diet believing it would aid weight loss, even if they didn't have celiac disease or gluten sensitivity. However, this trend was not supported by scientific evidence.

  4. The 5:2 Diet (Fast Diet): This diet involves eating normally for five days a week and severely restricting calorie intake (around 500-600 calories) on the other two non-consecutive days.

  5. Keto Diet (Ketogenic Diet): The Keto diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that aims to put the body into a state of ketosis, where it burns fat for fuel instead of carbohydrates. This diet gained substantial popularity during this period.

  6. Intermittent Fasting: This eating pattern involves cycling between periods of fasting and eating. One popular method is the 16/8 method, where you fast for 16 hours and eat during an 8-hour window.

  7. Alkaline Diet: The Alkaline diet suggests that eating foods that are alkaline-forming in the body (such as fruits and vegetables) can optimize health and prevent diseases. However, the body's pH is tightly regulated, and the impact of dietary pH on health is often overstated.

  8. The Baby Food Diet: This diet involves replacing one or more meals with jars of baby food to control portion sizes and calories. It gained attention primarily for its novelty rather than its effectiveness.

  9. Raw Food Diet: Advocates of this diet believe that consuming foods in their raw, uncooked state preserves their natural enzymes and nutrients, leading to better health. It often includes fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and sprouted grains.

  10. HCG Diet: The HCG diet involves a combination of extreme calorie restriction and injections of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy. It was promoted as a way to target fat loss, but its safety and efficacy are widely debated.

  11. The Military Diet: This highly restrictive diet claims to help you lose weight quickly by following a specific meal plan for three days and then eating normally for four days. It often includes a mix of low-calorie foods.

  12. The Dukan Diet: This high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet is divided into phases, with the early phases being quite restrictive. It gained attention due to its association with celebrity endorsements.

Remember that while some of these diets may offer short-term weight loss results, their long-term sustainability and health effects can be questionable. It's important to consult with a healthcare professional or registered dietitian before embarking on any major dietary changes to ensure they are safe, suitable for your individual needs, and supported by scientific evidence.

Competitive Sports for Perfectionists

Perfectionists often excel in sports that require meticulous attention to detail, precision, and the pursuit of constant improvement. Here's a list of sports that are often considered ideal for perfectionists:

  1. Archery: Archery demands unwavering focus, attention to form, and precision in aiming. Perfectionists are drawn to the challenge of consistently hitting the bullseye and refining their shot placement. For archery lessons in Toronto contact

  2. Golf: Golf demands a high level of precision in every aspect of the game, from the swing to the putting stroke. Perfectionists thrive in the continuous pursuit of refining their technique and achieving consistent results.

  3. Diving: Diving combines artistic expression with technical precision. Perfectionists in diving work tirelessly to execute flawless dives with precise body control, positioning, and timing.

  4. Figure Skating: Figure skating requires a meticulous blend of grace, athleticism, and attention to detail. Perfectionists in this sport strive for perfect routines, mastering intricate moves and routines.

  5. Synchronized Swimming: Synchronized swimming combines precision with artistic creativity. Perfectionists excel in coordinating movements with teammates, maintaining precise formations, and executing synchronized routines.

  6. Gymnastics: Gymnastics demands precision, strength, and flexibility. Perfectionists in gymnastics work diligently to perfect their routines, focusing on executing every move flawlessly.

  7. Accuracy Sports: Shooting sports like rifle or pistol shooting, but also sports like billiards/pool/snooker and axe throwing, require extreme focus, control, and aiming accuracy. Perfectionists are drawn to the challenge of consistently hitting small targets with precision, or in the case of billiards ricocheting the balls in order to sink multiple balls.

  8. Swimming (Short Distances): In short-distance swimming events, such as sprints, every fraction of a second matters. Perfectionists excel in refining their stroke techniques, starts, and turns to maximize their speed and efficiency.

  9. Fencing: Fencing is a sport that demands quick thinking, precision in movement, and strategic decision-making. Perfectionists in fencing focus on precise attacks, defensive techniques, and exploiting opponents' weaknesses.

  10. Rowing: Rowing requires precise synchronization among team members, as well as a focus on stroke technique and timing. Perfectionists in rowing aim to create the most efficient and harmonious rowing motions.

  11. Cycling (Track): Track cycling events, such as sprint and pursuit races, demand precision in strategy, timing, and execution. Perfectionists in track cycling work to optimize their tactics and pedaling efficiency.

In these sports, the pursuit of perfection aligns with the disciplines and attention to detail required for success. While perfectionism can be both a strength and a challenge, these athletes often find fulfillment in their constant pursuit of improvement and mastery.

The Case for Dividing the Summer Olympics: Embracing Weather Diversity

The Summer Olympics, a global celebration of athleticism, culture, and unity, has remained a pinnacle of international sportsmanship for over a century. However, the idea of dividing the Summer Olympics into distinct seasons, such as Spring, Summer, and Autumn, presents a compelling argument that acknowledges the diverse weather conditions necessary for optimal performance in various sports.

While the current format has its merits, the proposition of diversifying the Olympics based on weather considerations offers numerous advantages for athletes, spectators, and the global sports community, and because of global warming and the prospect of extreme heat conditions it makes sense that this idea has merit and could lead to safer conditions for both athletes and spectators.

  1. Weather Diversity Enhances Performance

One of the primary reasons to consider dividing the Summer Olympics into separate seasons is the effect of weather on athletic performance. Different sports have different optimal weather conditions that can either enhance or hinder athletes' abilities. Extreme heat during the summer months can pose serious health risks for athletes and even diminish the quality of competition. By dispersing events across Spring, Summer, and Autumn, athletes can benefit from more conducive weather conditions, thus ensuring that their performance remains the primary focus.

For instance, endurance-based sports such as long-distance running and cycling could thrive during cooler Spring temperatures, while sports like swimming and diving might be more enjoyable for both athletes and spectators in milder Autumn weather. Dividing the Olympics in this way could lead to improved performances, records, and fair competitions.

  1. Spectator Experience and Safety

The spectator experience is a pivotal aspect of the Olympic Games. Extreme heat during the peak of summer can result in discomfort, dehydration, and even heat-related illnesses for both athletes and spectators. By spreading the events across multiple seasons, spectators can enjoy the competitions in more comfortable and safer conditions. This would lead to larger and more engaged crowds, enhancing the atmosphere and appeal of the Games.

  1. Sustainability and Environmental Impact

The current format of the Summer Olympics often necessitates the use of energy-intensive cooling systems and excessive water consumption to combat the sweltering heat. Dividing the Olympics into distinct seasons could significantly reduce the environmental footprint of the Games. For example, hosting outdoor events like marathon races and cycling during milder Spring and Autumn months would diminish the need for energy-intensive cooling measures. This change aligns with the global trend of promoting sustainable practices in large-scale events.

  1. Global Participation and Access

Dividing the Summer Olympics into different seasons could broaden the range of host cities capable of accommodating the Games. Many cities worldwide have climatic conditions that would be ideal for specific sports, but not for others. This expansion of potential host cities can lead to greater global participation, fostering inclusivity and diversity within the Olympic movement.

Final Thoughts

While the traditional Summer Olympics have undeniably been a testament to human achievement and unity, the notion of subdividing the event into Spring, Summer, and Autumn iterations presents a compelling case. By aligning sports with optimal weather conditions, athletes can thrive, spectators can enjoy a more comfortable experience, and the environment can be better preserved. Ultimately, such a transition would uphold the spirit of the Olympics while embracing the realities of weather diversity, making the Games more accessible, sustainable, and enjoyable for all involved.


Here are a few more reasons to support the idea of dividing the Summer Olympics into Spring, Summer, and Autumn Olympics:

  1. Injury Prevention: Extreme heat can increase the risk of heat-related injuries and exhaustion for athletes participating in events during the height of summer. By distributing events across different seasons, the risk of heat-related injuries can be significantly reduced, promoting the overall health and safety of athletes.

  2. Training Flexibility: Athletes often need to adjust their training routines based on the weather conditions they will face during competitions. Dividing the Olympics into seasons allows athletes to tailor their training more effectively, as they can train in conditions that closely match those of their events. This can lead to better preparation and improved performance.

  3. Athlete Participation: Some athletes may excel in certain weather conditions and struggle in others. Dividing the Olympics based on weather allows these athletes to showcase their skills and talents under conditions that are more favorable to their strengths. This could lead to a more diverse and dynamic range of athletes excelling in various events.

  4. Enhanced Strategy and Tactics: Weather conditions can significantly impact the strategy and tactics employed in various sports. For instance, wind conditions can affect sports like sailing, archery, and shooting. Dividing the Olympics into different seasons would add an extra layer of complexity to the competition, as athletes and teams would need to adapt their strategies to varying weather conditions.

  5. Cultural Relevance: Dividing the Olympics into different seasons could align with cultural and historical practices related to sports. In some regions, certain sports have traditional significance during specific times of the year. Aligning the Olympics with these cultural practices could enhance the authenticity and cultural richness of the Games.

  6. Media Attention and Sponsorship: Spreading out the Olympic events over multiple seasons could help distribute media attention and sponsorship opportunities more evenly. Currently, some sports might receive less attention due to being overshadowed by more popular events. Dividing the Olympics could provide a platform for a wider variety of sports to gain recognition.

  7. Economic Impact: Hosting the Olympics can have significant economic implications for host cities and countries. Dividing the Games into different seasons could potentially distribute the economic benefits and challenges more evenly, allowing different regions to benefit from hosting various events.

  8. Legacy and Impact: Hosting the Olympics is an opportunity for cities to leave a lasting legacy in terms of infrastructure, sports facilities, and community development. Dividing the Games could allow multiple cities to experience this legacy-building process, spreading the positive impact of the Olympics to a broader range of locations.


  1. Marathon Running: Marathon running is a demanding endurance sport. Running a marathon in the scorching heat of summer can be physically grueling and potentially dangerous. Moving marathon events to the cooler Spring or Autumn months could help prevent heat-related injuries and improve the overall performance of athletes.

  2. Triathlon: The triathlon combines swimming, cycling, and running. While swimming is typically held in a controlled environment (such as a pool or open water), cycling and running segments can be affected by extreme heat. Conducting triathlon events in milder weather conditions during Spring or Autumn could lead to better overall race experiences.

  3. Field Hockey: Field hockey requires agility, speed, and precise ball control. High temperatures can lead to player fatigue and reduce the quality of play. Playing field hockey in cooler Autumn conditions could result in a more enjoyable and competitive experience for both athletes and spectators.

  4. Golf: Golf is a sport where weather conditions can significantly impact gameplay. Extreme heat can affect concentration and physical endurance. Hosting golf events in Spring or Autumn, when temperatures are more moderate, would create a more comfortable environment for players and fans.

  5. Equestrian Events: Equestrian sports, such as dressage, eventing, and show jumping, involve both horse and rider. Horses are sensitive to heat and can become fatigued quickly in hot weather. Holding equestrian events during the milder Spring or Autumn seasons would ensure the safety and well-being of the animals and the athletes.

  6. Archery: As mentioned earlier, archery can benefit from stable atmospheric conditions, which are often found during the Fall. This can lead to more accurate and consistent shots.

  7. Rowing: Rowing events can be physically demanding, and extreme heat can lead to dehydration and decreased performance. Spring and Autumn provide more comfortable conditions for rowers, which can lead to better race times and reduced health risks.

  8. Soccer: While soccer is played year-round, the intense heat of summer can be challenging for players. High temperatures can lead to exhaustion and even heat-related illnesses. Hosting soccer matches in milder Spring and Autumn weather could improve the quality of play and player safety.

  9. Rugby: Rugby is a physically demanding sport that requires high levels of energy and endurance. Playing rugby in extreme heat can increase the risk of injuries and impact player performance. Shifting rugby events to cooler seasons could mitigate these risks.

  10. Cycling: Road cycling events can span several hours and cover long distances. Riding in extreme heat can lead to dehydration and heat exhaustion. Hosting cycling events in Spring or Autumn could lead to better race conditions and improved performances.


Here's a list of economic reasons why dividing the Summer Olympics into Spring, Summer, and Autumn editions could make sense:

  1. Tourism Revenue: Spreading the Olympics across different seasons would encourage tourism throughout the year, boosting the local economies of host cities and regions. Tourists and spectators would have more flexibility in choosing when to attend, leading to a steadier stream of revenue for hotels, restaurants, transportation, and other businesses.

  2. Extended Hosting Opportunities: Hosting the Olympics in a single season can place immense pressure on a city's infrastructure and resources. Dividing the Games could extend the hosting opportunity to multiple cities, distributing the economic benefits more broadly and preventing potential strain on a single host.

  3. Venue Utilization: Olympic venues are often constructed with significant investment, and dividing the Games could maximize their utilization. In some cases, venues that are suitable for Spring or Autumn events might remain underutilized during the summer. Dividing the Games would ensure a better return on investment for these facilities.

  4. Job Creation: Dividing the Olympics into different seasons could lead to more consistent job opportunities within the host cities. Rather than a short burst of employment during a single season, jobs related to the Olympics could be spread out over the course of the year, benefiting the local workforce.

  5. Sponsorship and Advertising: Hosting the Olympics across different seasons could attract a wider range of sponsors and advertisers, as different brands might be interested in associating with sports that align with their seasonal marketing campaigns. This diversification of sponsors could enhance the financial support for the Games.

  6. Ticket Sales: With events spread out over different seasons, ticket sales could be distributed more evenly, preventing a sudden rush of demand and potential supply shortages for popular events. This steady flow of ticket sales would also provide a more predictable revenue stream for organizers.

  7. Infrastructure Development: Dividing the Olympics could lead to more gradual infrastructure development, allowing host cities to space out construction and related expenses. This could lead to better budget management and reduced financial strain on the city's resources.

  8. Local Business Opportunities: Different sports require different types of equipment and services. Dividing the Games into seasons would give local businesses specializing in various sports-related products and services the chance to thrive, leading to increased economic activity.

  9. Long-Term Economic Impact: The extended duration of hosting the Olympics in different seasons could lead to a longer-lasting economic impact. The legacy of hosting the Games, including improved infrastructure and increased tourism awareness, would be spread out over a more extended period, benefiting the host city's economy in the long run.

  10. Reduced Infrastructure Costs: Extreme heat during the summer Olympics can necessitate costly cooling solutions for venues and accommodations. Dividing the Games into different seasons could reduce the need for these costly measures, leading to potential cost savings for host cities.


Here's a list of dangers that could potentially affect athletes, spectators, and horses (equestrian events) due to global warming and climate change during the Summer Olympics:


  1. Heat-Related Illnesses: Rising temperatures could increase the risk of heat-related illnesses such as heatstroke, heat exhaustion, and dehydration among athletes. These conditions can impact performance, health, and even lead to medical emergencies.

  2. Reduced Performance: High temperatures can lead to reduced athletic performance and endurance, affecting the overall quality of competition and potentially leading to disappointing results for athletes.

  3. Injury Risk: Heat can increase muscle fatigue and the risk of injuries such as cramps and strains. Athletes may push themselves harder in extreme conditions, leading to a higher likelihood of injuries.

  4. Respiratory Issues: Poor air quality due to higher temperatures and pollution can exacerbate respiratory problems and decrease lung function, impacting athletes' ability to compete at their best.

  5. Heat Stress and Fatigue: Prolonged exposure to extreme heat can cause mental and physical fatigue, affecting concentration, decision-making, and coordination—critical elements for success in sports.

  6. Hydration Challenges: Higher temperatures can lead to increased fluid loss through sweat, making it challenging for athletes to stay properly hydrated during competitions.


  1. Heat Stress: Extreme heat can put spectators at risk of heat stress and heat-related illnesses. Large crowds can amplify the heat, making it uncomfortable and potentially dangerous for attendees.

  2. Crowd Management: Heat-related health issues among spectators could strain medical and security personnel, creating challenges in managing the safety and well-being of large crowds.

  3. Reduced Attendance: Uncomfortable or unsafe conditions due to high temperatures may deter spectators from attending events, leading to reduced ticket sales and potentially affecting the economic viability of the Games.

  4. Public Health Concerns: The potential for heat-related illnesses among spectators could strain local healthcare resources, potentially impacting the wider community's well-being.

Horses (Equestrian Events):

  1. Heat Stress for Horses: Horses are sensitive to heat stress and can suffer from dehydration, heat exhaustion, and other health issues when exposed to high temperatures for prolonged periods.

  2. Performance Limitations: Extreme heat can reduce the performance capabilities of horses in equestrian events, affecting their stamina, agility, and overall ability to compete at their best.

  3. Injury Risks: Horses are at an increased risk of injury when their physical capabilities are compromised by heat stress, potentially leading to accidents during events.

  4. Healthcare Challenges: Treating heat-related ailments in horses requires specialized veterinary care, and an increased number of cases could strain available resources and impact the well-being of these animals.

  5. Travel-Related Stress: Transporting horses to and from the Olympics can expose them to extreme temperatures during transit, potentially affecting their readiness for competition.

As global warming and climate change continue to impact the world, these dangers highlight the importance of addressing climate-related risks when planning and organizing major sporting events like the Summer Olympics. Effective measures need to be taken to ensure the safety and well-being of athletes, spectators, and animals involved.

Adrenaline High Exercises

Doing exercises that involve an adrenaline high can speed up weight loss, and if you become addicted to the adrenaline high, it encourages you to keep exercising and doing the activity more often.

Here's a list of exercises that can give you an adrenaline high:

  1. Rock or Tree Climbing: Scale indoor or outdoor rock walls or trees, challenging yourself both physically and mentally as you navigate the route and overcome obstacles. The sense of accomplishment and the thrill of heights can trigger an adrenaline rush.

  2. Whitewater Rafting: Navigate fast-moving rivers and rapids in an inflatable raft, working together as a team to maneuver through the whitewater. The rush of adrenaline comes from the unpredictable nature of the water and the excitement of the adventure.

  3. Extreme Sports: Engage in extreme sports such as snowboarding, skiing, surfing, skateboarding, or parkour. These activities involve speed, agility, and calculated risks, providing an adrenaline rush through the thrill of performing daring maneuvers and pushing your limits.

  4. Paragliding: Soar through the skies with a paraglider, using air currents and thermals to stay afloat. The combination of the breathtaking views, the sense of freedom, and the adrenaline rush of being suspended in the air can provide a thrilling experience.

  5. Martial Arts: Engage in martial arts disciplines such as kickboxing, Muay Thai, or Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. The intensity of the training, the physical challenges, and the adrenaline rush from sparring or competing can create an exhilarating experience.

  6. Adventure Park/Obstacle Course: Visit an adventure park or try an obstacle course that includes elements like zip-lining, rope courses, or challenging obstacles. The physical and mental challenges, combined with heights and speed, can deliver an adrenaline rush.

Remember, when engaging in high-adrenaline activities, always prioritize safety and follow proper precautions. It's important to receive proper training, use appropriate safety gear, and follow the guidance of professionals to ensure a thrilling yet safe experience.

Why is September and October arguably the best time of year to do outdoor sports?

Q. Why is September and October arguably the best time of year to do certain sports?

A. There are many reasons why September and October are often considered favorable months for certain outdoor sports.

In the examples listed below we will look at many of the reasons why September and October are great months of the year to do archery, but many of these reasons will also apply to a variety of other outdoor sports.

  1. Weather Conditions: In many regions, September and October offer mild and comfortable weather. The heat of summer has usually subsided, and the cold of winter has not yet set in. This moderate temperature range can make practicing outdoor sports more enjoyable, as athletes don't have to deal with extreme heat or cold.

  2. Stable Atmosphere: During these months, the atmosphere tends to be more stable. This means there is less turbulence in the air, which can affect the trajectory of projectiles like arrows in archery. A stable atmosphere can result in more predictable and consistent shot placements, making it easier to focus on improving skills.

  3. Reduced Wind: Wind is a significant factor in many outdoor sports, especially archery. Windy conditions can greatly affect the flight of an arrow, making it difficult to maintain accuracy. During September and October, wind speeds are often lower compared to other times of the year, providing archers with more favorable shooting conditions. Also, wind direction during September and October (at least in the northern hemisphere) is more likely to be consistently from the north, which means the wind is also more predictable.

  4. Less Daylight Variability: As the days get shorter heading into fall, there is generally less variation in daylight hours compared to summer. This can provide more consistent lighting conditions, making it easier to judge distances and aim accurately in archery.

  5. Preparation for Hunting Season: For many archers, September and October mark the beginning of hunting seasons in various regions. As a result, these months are an excellent time to practice and refine archery skills to prepare for hunting activities. This gives archers the chance to practice their shots, accuracy, and stealth in conditions similar to those they will encounter during hunting season.

  6. Training and Tournaments: Many sports, including archery, schedule training sessions, workshops, and tournaments during the fall months. The favorable weather conditions and the absence of extreme temperature variations make it conducive to hosting outdoor events and competitions.

  7. Scenic Environment: The changing colors of foliage during the fall months create a visually appealing backdrop for outdoor sports. This can enhance the overall experience of practicing and participating in sports like archery.

  8. Cultural and Historical Significance: In some cultures, the fall season holds special significance for activities like archery. For example, traditional festivals or historical events related to archery might be celebrated during these months, motivating enthusiasts to participate and engage in the sport.

While September and October are indeed favorable for archery and other outdoor sports, it's important to note that the specific advantages can vary depending on the location, climate, and the sport itself.


New Archery Rates as of January 2024

Due to inflation I will be raising my archery rates on January 1st 2024. I haven't changed my rates since Summer 2020, so by January 2024 that will be roughly 3.5 years without any changes to my rates.

Below are my current archery lesson rates:

Morning / Afternoon Rates (No Evenings)

1 Student, Weekdays or Weekends
$70 for 90 minutes; 3 Lessons - $200; 5 Lessons - $320; 10 Lessons - $620.

2 Students, Weekdays or Weekends
$100 for 90 minutes; 3 Lessons - $290; 5 Lessons - $470; 10 Lessons - $920.

Below are my new archery lesson rates starting January 1st 2024:

Morning / Afternoon Rates (No Evenings)

1 Student, Weekdays or Weekends
$80 for 90 minutes; 3 Lessons - $230; 5 Lessons - $370; 10 Lessons - $720.

2 Students, Weekdays or Weekends
$110 for 90 minutes; 3 Lessons - $320; 5 Lessons - $520; 10 Lessons - $1020.

This $10 increase per lesson represents an approximately 14% increase in my rates for single lessons for one person. The inflation rate in Canada was only 0.72% during 2020, but was 3.4% in 2021 and 6.8% in 2022. So far in 2023 the inflation rate has been 2.8%, and could reach 4% by January 2024.

Keeping in mind that such inflation is compounded annually.

Thus a $100 worth of goods in 2020 would now cost $100 x 1.0072 x 1.034 x 1.068 x 1.028 (or 1.04) =

$114.34 (or $115.68 by January 2024)

Thus the compound interest during the past 3 years has been 14.34% and will reach approximately 15.68% by January 2024 when my rates go up.

So raising my archery lessons rates by approximately 14% is in line with the compounded interest rate from the past 3 years.

Note - Prebooking for lessons in 2024 means that people can lock in a cheaper rate before my prices go up in January. So if you are planning to get lessons in 2024 it is best to book now before my prices increase.

Plus hitting your own arrow (and breaking it) on a moving target gets more expensive as the price of arrows has also been going up.

Building Confidence / Weightlifting

This article is a two-parter. Part One is about how weightlifting is a good activity for building your self confidence. Part Two is about how to maintain self confidence through a variety of methods.

Part One - Building Self Confidence through Weightlifting

Honestly any kind of exercise helps to build self confidence, but two activities that are particularly good at building confidence are as follows:

1. Training for Marathons.

2. Weightlifting.

In theory you could do both, but lets explain why both of these activities are good for boosting confidence.

In the case of Marathon Training, running long distances does two things: 1. You see a noticeable increase in endurance, and that in turn boosts your confidence. 2. Long distance running releases a cocktail of endorphins and hormones into your bloodstream which act like drugs and produce what is known as "Runners High". The combination of progressively building endurance while being rewarded for your efforts with Runners High is a surprisingly effective way of building confidence. Actually running a marathon and then being able to say "I did it" is a bit like climbing a mountain, it is an incredible boost to your sense of self worth having accomplished what you set out to do. Doing multiple marathons, perhaps improving on your time as you progress means that you can see marked improvement as you get both faster and become a more efficient running machine. Unfortunately Runners High is also addictive, so be warned not to overdo it. (Anything over 100 km per week is considered to be an exercise addiction.)

In the case of Weightlifting the boosts to your confidence are multi-faceted.

  • You still get a release of Endorphins and Hormones while weightlifting, although not to the same degree as Runners High does. The result is that many people who get really into weightlifting will experience an Endorphin High. Note - It isn't a high like being drunk or stoned. It is more a rewarding feeling of euphoria.
  • After exercising many weightlifters will report feeling "unstoppable" for approx. 45 to 60 minutes after their workout because they are "so pumped up". This is a combination of both the endorphins and the feeling that they are physically bigger immediately after a workout.
  • As time goes by your strength and endurance increase, and mentally you feel more capable and more confident about your physical capabilities. Be careful you are not over-confident however, that leads to foolish accidents.
  • It is true that many weightlifters like to admire themselves in the mirror. Some perhaps a bit too much, but they are doing so because they are liking the results they are seeing. The confidence is there, building. Sometimes it might be over-confidence, so try to focus on staying humble.
  • Use your strength to help people during your daily life. Suddenly helping someone carry a baby carriage down a flight of stairs doesn't seem so difficult and you feel good about doing it. Feeling stronger in your daily life will boost your own sense of self worth.

Weightlifting Tips

Tip #1. Be careful not to over-train. Over-training causes you to lose muscle mass and become weaker over time, because you are overdoing it. If you feel worn out, exhausted, completely out of energy after a workout then you might be over-training. A good way to prevent this is to take regular breaks, hydrate and to focus on a moderate amount of repetitions with a moderate amount of weight. Trying to do lots of repetitions and lift ridiculous amounts at the same time is just going to exhaust you, causing more harm than good. You will know you are over-training if you feel exhausted each time, and actually feel weaker as time progresses.

Tip #2. Keep a journal of how many exercises/repetitions you do each workout and focus on leaving the gym feeling pumped up instead of leaving the gym feeling exhausted.

Tip #3. If you are feeling ill, tired due to lack of sleep or less-than optimal on a particular day, try reducing the weight between 5 to 20 pounds and focus on building endurance instead of strength today. It is okay to have an off day.

Tip #4. Once in awhile, like once per week or once every two weeks, you should try lifting a new personal record. Each time, even if it less than you were hoping, you should write down your new personal best in your journal.

Tip #5. Eat healthy! This is perhaps the most important thing you can do. You cannot build a weightlifting machine by feeding the engine doughnuts and coffee filled with sugar and cream.

#6. Maintain Proper Form and Posture. Form is more important than weight or number of repetitions. Bad form leads to sports injuries. Good form builds muscle faster. Wearing a lifting belt can also be a safe and effective way to help you maintain form and posture during weightlifting.

Part Two - Maintaining Self Confidence while Weightlifting

To explain this next part I am going to turn you over to the lady in the video further below who has multiple tips on how to maintain your self confidence by asking yourself several questions after your workout is over:

What did you do well?

What would you like to change or improve?

These questions are really geared towards making you a better weightlifter over time, but they also have the benefit of allowing you to evolve as a weightlifter and become better at it - and as a result it helps to maintain both your confidence and your motivation to keep lifting.

There are other tips for staying focused and staying confident while exercising. These tips include things like: Giving yourself a sports day once/week where you can go enjoy a fun activity outside instead of staying cooped inside in the gym all the time; Give yourself something to think about while you are exercising, like a mental puzzle or a mystery - this keeps your brain active on a task while doing the physical activity. eg. I like working on ideas for future projects in my head (whether they be woodworking, writing, artistic or even poetry) while I am weightlifting; Lastly, listen to music. A few good songs that make you feel excited to exercise certainly help keep you focused and enjoying what you are doing. Need more help? Hire a personal trainer.

Happy Lifting!

Fletching 101

Fletching refers to the feathers or other materials attached to the shaft of an arrow to stabilize its flight. Different types of fletching can have varying effects on an arrow's performance, such as affecting the arrow's speed and accuracy.

Here's a list of different kinds of fletching used on arrows:

  1. Natural Feathers: Traditional fletching material made from the feathers of birds like turkey, goose, or eagle. These feathers are often cut and shaped to create the desired stabilization effect.

  2. Plastic Vanes: Modern fletching made from various types of plastic materials. They are usually more durable and consistent in shape compared to natural feathers.

  3. Spin-Wings (Helical Vanes): These are plastic vanes with a slight twist or helical shape. The spin imparted by these vanes helps stabilize the arrow's flight and counteract any spinning induced by the bow's release.

  4. Straight Vanes: These are plastic vanes that are attached to the arrow shaft in a straight configuration. They provide stability through drag and airflow manipulation.

  5. Shield Cut Vanes: Vanes that are shaped like a shield or teardrop. They offer a balance between stabilization and reduced drag, making them suitable for various shooting styles.

  6. Parabolic Cut Vanes: Vanes with a parabolic or curved shape. They provide good stabilization and are often used in traditional archery and hunting arrows.

  7. Offset Vanes: In this configuration, one or more vanes are slightly offset from the rest. This can induce a spin in the arrow's flight for greater stability.

  8. 4-Fletch and 3-Fletch Configurations: Refers to the number of vanes used on an arrow. Four-fletch has four vanes equally spaced around the shaft, while three-fletch has three. The choice can affect arrow flight characteristics.

  9. Feather Length and Height: Both natural feathers and plastic vanes come in various lengths and heights. The choice of size can impact arrow stability and flight characteristics.

  10. Feather Colors: Fletching can be customized with different colors for aesthetic appeal, visibility, and identification purposes.

  11. Hybrid Fletching: Combining different types of vanes or feathers on a single arrow shaft. For example, using a combination of natural feathers and plastic vanes to balance tradition and modern technology.

  12. Cut-Out Vanes: Vanes with cut-out sections or perforations. These designs can reduce the overall weight of the fletching and influence arrow flight.

  13. Quick-Spin Vanes: These vanes are designed to quickly stabilize the arrow's flight, especially when shot from faster bows or crossbows.

  14. Low-Profile Vanes: Vanes with a reduced height profile, designed to minimize wind resistance and drag during flight.

Remember that the choice of fletching depends on various factors, including the type of archery you're engaged in (target shooting, hunting, traditional archery), the bow's draw weight and speed, and personal preferences in terms of arrow flight characteristics.

To learn more consider signing up for archery lessons with a local archery instructor. Looking for archery lessons in Toronto? Look no further. Cardio Trek can help you.

Why is Counting Calories so Effective for Weight Loss?

Counting calories can be an effective strategy for people trying to lose weight because it provides a quantifiable and objective way to monitor and control their energy intake. 

Weight loss ultimately depends on the balance between the number of calories consumed through food and the number of calories expended through physical activity and basic bodily functions. 

Here's why counting calories can be so effective:

  1. Caloric Deficit: Weight loss occurs when you consistently consume fewer calories than your body expends. This creates a caloric deficit, prompting your body to use its stored energy (fat) to make up for the shortfall. Counting calories allows you to ensure you're consistently in a caloric deficit by tracking the number of calories you eat and adjusting your intake as needed.

  2. Awareness and Mindfulness: Counting calories encourages greater awareness of portion sizes and the caloric content of different foods. It helps you understand the energy content of the foods you eat and makes you more mindful of your eating habits. This awareness can lead to better food choices and portion control.

  3. Precision and Accountability: Counting calories provides a level of precision in your weight loss efforts. It helps you take control of your eating habits and hold yourself accountable for what you consume. This data-driven approach allows you to fine-tune your diet to meet your weight loss goals.

  4. Flexibility and Personalization: Counting calories doesn't necessarily restrict you to specific foods or diets. You can choose the foods you enjoy while still losing weight, as long as you maintain a caloric deficit. This flexibility can make the weight loss journey more sustainable and enjoyable.

  5. Education and Empowerment: By counting calories, you become more knowledgeable about the energy content of various foods. This knowledge empowers you to make informed decisions about your diet and equips you with skills that can benefit you in the long term, even after you've achieved your weight loss goals.

  6. Adjustability: As your weight changes and your metabolism adjusts, your caloric needs may also change. Counting calories allows you to adapt your diet to these changes and prevent weight loss plateaus.

  7. Behavioral Changes: Counting calories encourages you to develop healthier eating habits. Over time, this can lead to a shift in your relationship with food and a better understanding of hunger and satiety cues.

  8. Progress Tracking: Counting calories provides a clear way to track your progress. You can see how your efforts translate into changes in weight and body composition, which can be motivating and help you stay on track.

However, it's important to note that while counting calories can be effective, it might not be suitable for everyone. Some individuals may find it too restrictive or time-consuming, and it may not address other aspects of a healthy lifestyle, such as nutrient quality and overall well-being. 

Consulting with a healthcare professional or registered dietitian before making significant changes to your diet is recommended to ensure that your weight loss approach is safe and appropriate for your individual needs and preferences.

The Ultimate Abs Workout

Here's the ultimate workout for abdominal muscles that targets various areas of the core:

  1. Bicycle Crunches: Lie flat on your back with your hands behind your head. Lift your shoulder blades off the ground and bring your right elbow towards your left knee while straightening your right leg. Repeat on the other side in a pedaling motion. Aim for 3 sets of 15-20 repetitions on each side.

  2. Plank: Assume a push-up position with your elbows resting on the ground directly under your shoulders. Keep your body straight from head to toe, engaging your core muscles. Hold this position for as long as you can while maintaining proper form. Aim for 3 sets, gradually increasing the duration with each set.

  3. Russian Twists: Sit on the ground with your knees bent and feet slightly elevated. Lean back slightly while keeping your back straight. Hold your hands together or use a medicine ball, and twist your torso from side to side, tapping the ground with your hands on each side. Aim for 3 sets of 15-20 repetitions on each side.

  4. Reverse Crunches: Lie flat on your back with your arms extended by your sides. Lift your legs off the ground, bending your knees at a 90-degree angle. Engage your lower abdominal muscles and bring your knees towards your chest while lifting your hips off the ground. Slowly lower your legs back to the starting position. Aim for 3 sets of 15-20 repetitions.

  5. Mountain Climbers: Assume a push-up position with your arms straight. Bring one knee in towards your chest, then quickly switch legs, alternating back and forth. Keep a quick pace and perform the movement for 30-60 seconds. Aim for 3 sets.

  6. Plank Hip Dips: Start in a high plank position with your hands directly under your shoulders. Rotate your hips to one side, dipping them towards the ground, and then rotate to the other side. Keep your core engaged and maintain a steady pace. Aim for 3 sets of 15-20 repetitions on each side.

  7. Hanging Leg Raises: Hang from a pull-up bar with your arms extended and your legs straight. Engage your core and lift your legs up towards your chest while keeping them straight. Slowly lower them back down to the starting position. If hanging leg raises are too challenging, you can perform bent knee raises instead. Aim for 3 sets of 10-15 repetitions.

  8. Standing Oblique Crunches: Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart and place one hand behind your head. Bend to the side, bringing your elbow towards your hip, and squeeze your oblique muscles. Return to the starting position and repeat on the other side. Aim for 3 sets of 15-20 repetitions on each side.

Remember to maintain proper form and engage your core throughout each exercise. Start with a weight or intensity level that is appropriate for your fitness level and gradually increase as you progress. It's important to combine this abdominal workout with a well-rounded fitness routine and a balanced diet for optimal results.

Arrow Glossary

The following glossary is not comprehensive. Indeed there are many more types of arrowheads, fletches, shafts and specialty nocks used for arrows that aren't listed here. Eg. Lighted LED nocks.

Arrow: A projectile used with a bow, consisting of a shaft with a pointed tip on one end and stabilizing feathers or vanes on the other.

Barbed Point: An arrowhead with barbs on its edges, designed to prevent easy removal from the target. Barbed points are often used in bowfishing.

Blunt Point or Bludgeon Point: A rounded or flat tip designed for hunting small game or birds. Blunt points will still kill a small target through blunt force.

Bodkin Point: A type of arrowhead characterized by a narrow, pointed tip. Bodkin points were historically used to penetrate armor or thick hides.

Broadhead: An arrowhead with wide blades designed for hunting. Broadheads have sharp cutting edges that cause significant damage to the target upon impact. They come in various designs, including fixed-blade and expandable-blade types.

Cock Fletch/Vane: Also known as the Rooster or Index fletch, it is a fletching that is coloured differently from the others to indicate the correct orientation when nocking the arrow.

Cresting: Decorative markings or designs applied to the shaft of an arrow. Cresting is often used for identification or aesthetic purposes.

Cresting Paint: Specialized paint used to apply decorative markings, designs, or patterns on the arrow shaft. Cresting paint is often durable and resistant to wear and tear.

Cresting Wheel: A rotating device used to apply cresting paint to the arrow shaft. The wheel allows for precise and consistent application of markings or designs.

Feather: Traditionally, arrows were fletched with feathers, usually from birds like turkeys. Feathers provide stability and can be either natural or synthetic.

Field Point: Also known as a bullet point or practice point, it is a simple conical tip used primarily for practice and target shooting. It is usually made of metal and has a smooth surface. Field points help prevent damage to targets.

Fletching: The feathers or vanes attached to the rear end of the arrow shaft, responsible for stabilizing the arrow's flight. Fletching helps to minimize drag and maintain accuracy.

Fletching Jig: A device used to position and attach fletching to arrow shafts. The jig ensures consistent placement and angles for optimal arrow flight.

Fletchings Orientation: Refers to the positioning of the feathers or vanes on an arrow shaft. The orientation can be helical (twisted) or straight, affecting arrow stability and spin.

Fletching Tape/Adhesive: The tape or adhesive used to secure the fletching to the arrow shaft. It can be in the form of double-sided tape, glue, or specialized adhesive.

Flu-Flu: A specialized type of fletching with large, full-length feathers or vanes. Flu-flu arrows are designed to slow down quickly and are easy to find, making them suitable for aerial target shooting or hunting birds in the woods. Flu Flu fletching is often brightly coloured (eg. bright yellow) in order to make them easy to find.

Insert: A component inserted into the front end of the arrow shaft, typically made of aluminum or other metal. Inserts provide a threaded connection for screw-in arrowheads and enhance durability.

Judo Point: A specialized arrowhead used for small game hunting. It features spring-loaded arms or wire prongs that prevent the arrow from burying too deep into the ground or vegetation.

Nock: A slot or groove at the rear end of the arrow, designed to engage with the bowstring, allowing the arrow to be properly positioned and released.

Nock Collar: A protective ring or sleeve placed around the rear end of the arrow shaft, near the nock. The nock collar adds strength and durability to the arrow and helps prevent damage.

Point/Tip: The front end of the arrow that pierces the target. Various types of arrowheads exist, each serving different purposes.

Screw-In Point: A type of arrowhead that can be screwed into the arrow shaft, allowing for easy replacement or customization of the point type for specific tasks.

Shaft: The main body of the arrow, typically made of materials like wood, carbon fiber, aluminum, or a combination.

Spine: The stiffness of an arrow shaft, usually measured in deflection or spine value. The spine affects how the arrow flexes during flight and interacts with the bow.

Vane: Modern arrows often use plastic vanes instead of feathers. Vanes are typically made of materials like plastic or rubber and offer improved durability and consistency.

Whistling Arrowheads: Arrowheads with holes cut within them and a hollow interior that make a loud whistling noise when shot. Tibetan and Mongolian archers also used howling arrowheads / howling broadheads, which had the added benefit of demoralizing the enemy in addition to wounding/killing them.

Wrap: A decorative tape or shrinkable tube applied to the arrow shaft. Wraps can feature designs, patterns, or personalization and provide additional protection to the shaft.

Javelin as a Sport, Part 2

Back in June a father asked me about getting javelin lessons for his son, which is not one of the sports that I specialize in. I did write about the topic however back in 2016. See Javelin as a Sport.

Here's the response I gave him:


That is not one of the sports I specialize in, but I do remember writing an article with a personal anecdote on the subject.

I recommend going to some track and field events where javelin is one of the sports featured and try talking to any coaches there about the possibility of lessons.

Otherwise there are YouTube videos on the subject and you could purchase javelins for him to practice with and find a safe place (possibly a football or soccer field) to practice.

If you're unable to find anyone else to help him I am still a sports trainer and can assist in his training, but I still recommend finding someone who specializes in teaching javelin.

Have a great day!

Charles Moffat

After the father thanked me it occurred to me that there was one tool at my fingertips that could also provide a good answer, so I went to ChatGPT and asked the following question:

What are the best ways to learn how to do Javelin as a sport?

And here was the response:

If you're interested in learning how to do javelin as a sport, there are several effective ways to get started and improve your skills. Here are some steps you can take:

  1. Find a coach or join a club: Look for local athletic clubs or organizations that offer javelin training. Having a qualified coach can make a significant difference in your learning process, as they can provide guidance, correct your technique, and help you progress.

  2. Study proper technique: Javelin throwing involves a specific set of techniques and skills. Familiarize yourself with the fundamentals by studying instructional videos, books, or online resources. Pay attention to grip, approach, body positioning, and the throwing motion.

  3. Warm up and stretch: Like any physical activity, warming up before throwing javelin is crucial. Perform dynamic stretches and mobility exercises to prepare your muscles and joints for the activity.

  4. Start with basic drills: Begin with drills that focus on individual aspects of the throw, such as footwork, arm movement, and balance. These drills will help you develop muscle memory and refine your technique.

  5. Work on strength and conditioning: Javelin throwing requires power, speed, and explosiveness. Incorporate strength and conditioning exercises into your training routine to improve your overall athletic performance. Focus on exercises that target the core, shoulders, legs, and hips.

  6. Practice regularly: Consistency is key when learning any sport. Set aside regular practice sessions to work on your technique, drills, and conditioning. Gradually increase the intensity and duration of your training as you progress.

  7. Attend workshops and camps: Look for workshops, clinics, or camps specifically focused on javelin throwing. These events often feature experienced coaches and athletes who can provide valuable insights, feedback, and specialized training.

  8. Participate in competitions: Once you've developed a solid foundation and feel confident in your abilities, consider entering local or regional javelin competitions. Competing will give you valuable experience, expose you to different conditions, and help you gauge your progress.

  9. Seek feedback and analyze performance: Ask your coach or fellow athletes to provide feedback on your technique. Recording and reviewing your throws can also help you identify areas for improvement and track your progress over time.

  10. Stay motivated and set goals: Javelin throwing requires dedication and perseverance. Set short-term and long-term goals to keep yourself motivated and focused on improving. Celebrate your achievements along the way, and remember that progress takes time.

Remember to prioritize safety throughout your training, and if you have any pre-existing health conditions or concerns, consult with a medical professional before engaging in any vigorous physical activity.


I then emailed the AI's response to the father. Answers like that make me realize that certain professions are doomed to be replaced by AI.

Why the Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR) is an Indicator of Obesity and Overall Health

There is a ratio called the Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR) that is used as an indicator of obesity and overall health. It is calculated by dividing your waist circumference by your height. The WHtR is considered to be a better indicator of health risks associated with obesity than the more commonly used body mass index (BMI) in some cases.

The problem with BMI is that it ignores muscle mass and bone density, by which standard even Arnold Schwarzenegger in his prime would have been considered obese because of the added muscle and bone weight. Thus BMI isn't actually a good indicator of obesity.

The Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR) however is a good indicator.

To calculate your waist-to-height ratio, follow these steps:

  1. Measure your waist circumference: Use a measuring tape to measure the circumference of your waist at the narrowest point, typically around the belly button.

  2. Measure your height: Use a measuring tape or a wall-mounted height scale to measure your height in either centimeters (cm) or meters (m).

  3. Divide your waist circumference by your height: Divide your waist circumference by your height. Make sure to use the same units for both measurements (e.g., if your waist circumference is in centimeters, convert your height to centimeters as well).

For example, if your waist circumference is 80 cm and your height is 170 cm, the calculation would be: 80 cm / 170 cm = 0.47.

The resulting number is your waist-to-height ratio. The general guideline is that a ratio below 0.5 is considered healthy, while a ratio above 0.5 indicates an increased risk of health problems associated with obesity.

Note that having a lot of abdominal muscles (eg. a robust six pack) could also skew the results of the WHtR, but this would be an extreme rarity. Likewise someone who is pregnant should ignore their waist-to-height ratio.

It's important to note that while the waist-to-height ratio can be a useful tool, it is not the sole determinant of obesity or health. Other factors, such as body composition, muscle mass, and overall lifestyle, should also be taken into consideration. It's always a good idea to consult with a healthcare professional for a comprehensive assessment of your health.

What about Anorexia?

The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is generally not used as an indicator of anorexia. Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by an intense fear of gaining weight, distorted body image, and extreme weight loss. While weight loss and low body weight are common features of anorexia, the WHtR is not typically used to diagnose or indicate this condition.

In diagnosing anorexia nervosa, healthcare professionals typically consider a range of factors, including body weight, body mass index (BMI), psychological symptoms, and other physical and behavioral indicators.

BMI is often used as a screening tool to assess weight status and potential health risks associated with weight, but it is important to note that BMI alone cannot provide a comprehensive diagnosis of anorexia or any other eating disorder.

If you or someone you know is concerned about anorexia or any other eating disorder, it is essential to seek professional help from a healthcare provider or a mental health specialist who can conduct a thorough evaluation and provide appropriate guidance and treatment.

Looking to sign up for archery lessons, boxing lessons, swimming lessons, ice skating lessons or personal training sessions? Start by emailing and lets talk fitness!


Popular Posts

Cardio Trek Posts